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Jothin kumar
Jothin kumar

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Tic Tac Toe 🎮 with Python tkinter - part 1

In this tutorial, we will be creating a basic Tic Tac Toe game 🎮 with Python tkinter. If you are new to tkinter, refer this crash course: https://dev.to/jothinkumar/getting-started-with-tkinter-crash-course-5a7m

Webpage version: https://dev.to/jothinkumar/tic-tac-toe-with-html-css-and-js-part-1-4ja2

The GUI 👀

Let's go ahead and create a GUI for the game.

Step 1: Create a tkinter window

import tkinter as tk

root = tk.Tk()
root.resizable(False, False)
root.title("Tic Tac Toe")
root.mainloop()
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Screenshot of a basic tkinter window

Step 2: Add play area and a label with text "Tic Tac Toe"

import tkinter as tk  

root = tk.Tk()  
root.resizable(False, False)  
root.title("Tic Tac Toe")  

tk.Label(root, text="Tic Tac Toe", font=('Ariel', 25)).pack()  

play_area = tk.Frame(root, width=300, height=300, bg='white')  
XO_points = []  
class XOPoint:  
    def __init__(self, x, y):  
        self.x = x  
        self.y = y  
        self.value = None  
        self.button = tk.Button(play_area, text="", width=10, height=5)  
        self.button.grid(row=x, column=y)  

    def reset(self):  
        self.button.configure(text="", bg='white')  
        self.value = None  
for x in range(1, 4):
    for y in range(1, 4):
        XOPoint(x, y) 
play_area.pack(pady=10, padx=10)  

root.mainloop()
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screenshot of a tkinter window with tic tac toe
Step 3: Make the GUI functional

Let's make the GUI functional by changing button text and color when clicked. For this, we need to make some changes to class "XOPoint" in code.

class XOPoint:  
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x  
        self.y = y  
        self.value = None  
        self.button = tk.Button(play_area, text="", width=10, height=5, command=self.set)
        self.button.grid(row=x, column=y)

    def set(self):
        global current_chr
        if not self.value:
            self.button.configure(text=current_chr, bg='snow', fg='black')
            self.value = current_chr 
            if current_chr == "X":
                current_chr = "O"
            elif current_chr == "O":
                current_chr = "X"

    def reset(self):  
        self.button.configure(text="", bg='white')  
        self.value = None
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Tic Tac Toe functional tkinter GUI

Detect win and draw 🤔

Let's now implement a logic to detect win/draw.

Step 4: Implement logic to detect win

We need to check after each move if X or O won the game. There are 8 possible ways in which one can win Tic Tac Toe:

8 possible ways of winning Tic Tac Toe
Let's modify the code to detect game win.

import tkinter as tk  

root = tk.Tk()  
root.resizable(False, False)  
root.title("Tic Tac Toe")  

tk.Label(root, text="Tic Tac Toe", font=('Ariel', 25)).pack()
current_chr = "X"

play_area = tk.Frame(root, width=300, height=300, bg='white')  
X_points = []
O_points = []
class XOPoint:  
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x  
        self.y = y  
        self.value = None  
        self.button = tk.Button(play_area, text="", width=10, height=5, command=self.set)
        self.button.grid(row=x, column=y)

    def set(self):
        global current_chr
        if not self.value:
            self.button.configure(text=current_chr, bg='snow', fg='black')
            self.value = current_chr 
            if current_chr == "X":
                X_points.append(self)
                current_chr = "O"
            elif current_chr == "O":
                O_points.append(self)
                current_chr = "X"
        check_win()

    def reset(self):  
        self.button.configure(text="", bg='white')  
        self.value = None
for x in range(1, 4):
    for y in range(1, 4):
        XOPoint(x, y)
class WinningPossibility:
    def __init__(self, x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3):
        self.x1 = x1
        self.y1 = y1
        self.x2 = x2
        self.y2 = y2
        self.x3 = x3
        self.y3 = y3
    def check(self, for_chr):
        p1_satisfied = False
        p2_satisfied = False
        p3_satisfied = False
        if for_chr == 'X':
            for point in X_points:
                if point.x == self.x1 and point.y == self.y1:
                    p1_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x2 and point.y == self.y2:
                    p2_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x3 and point.y == self.y3:
                    p3_satisfied = True
        elif for_chr == 'O':
            for point in O_points:
                if point.x == self.x1 and point.y == self.y1:
                    p1_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x2 and point.y == self.y2:
                    p2_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x3 and point.y == self.y3:
                    p3_satisfied = True
        return all([p1_satisfied, p2_satisfied, p3_satisfied])
winning_possibilities = [
    WinningPossibility(1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3),
    WinningPossibility(2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3),
    WinningPossibility(3, 1, 3, 2, 3, 3),
    WinningPossibility(1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1),
    WinningPossibility(1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2),
    WinningPossibility(1, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3),
    WinningPossibility(1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3),
    WinningPossibility(3, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3)
]
def check_win():
    for possibility in winning_possibilities:
        if possibility.check('X'):
            print("X won!")
            return
        elif possibility.check('O'):
            print("O won!")
            return
play_area.pack(pady=10, padx=10)  

root.mainloop()
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Step 5: Detect draw

If all 9 squares were filled and still no one won the game, it's a draw! Detecting game draw is simple. Just append the following code to the function "check_win".

if len(X_points) + len(O_points) == 9:
        print("Draw!")
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Enhancements

Now that everything works fine, we can improve it further.

Step 6: Status Label

Tic Tac Toe is a GUI game and displaying game result in GUI is better than printing them in console. So, let's create a tkinter Label via which we can display result. Add the following code:

status_label = tk.Label(root, text="", font=('Ariel', 15), bg='green', fg='snow')
status_label.pack(fill=tk.X)
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Also, we need to make some changes to function "check_win":

def check_win():
    for possibility in winning_possibilities:
        if possibility.check('X'):
            status_label.configure(text="X won!")
            return
        elif possibility.check('O'):
            status_label.configure(text="O won!")
            return
    if len(X_points) + len(O_points) == 9:
        status_label.configure(text="Draw!")
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Python tkinter Tic Tac Toe working demo
Step 7: Display whose turn it is

The status label is not used till someone wins the game. Let's use it to display if it's X's turn or O's turn! We need to make some changes to function "set" in class "XOPoint".

def set(self):
        global current_chr
        if not self.value:
            self.button.configure(text=current_chr, bg='snow', fg='black')
            self.value = current_chr
            if current_chr == "X":
                X_points.append(self)
                current_chr = "O"
                status_label.configure(text="O's turn")
            elif current_chr == "O":
                O_points.append(self)
                current_chr = "X"
                status_label.configure(text="X's turn")
        check_win()
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Also, the text property of status label must be changed:

status_label = tk.Label(root, text="X's turn", font=('Ariel', 15), bg='green', fg='snow')
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Python tkinter Tic Tac Toe working demo
Step 8: Create Play again button

Once the game is over, the game needs to be disabled and a button to play the game again must be displayed. Let's add the following code to disable the game once it is over:

XO_points = []
def disable_game():
    for point in XO_points:
        point.button.configure(state=tk.DISABLED)
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We need to make changes to the function "check_win" and to the for loops that create "XOPoint" objects:

for x in range(1, 4):
    for y in range(1, 4):
        XO_points.append(XOPoint(x, y))

def check_win():
    for possibility in winning_possibilities:
        if possibility.check('X'):
            status_label.configure(text="X won!")
            disable_game()
            return
        elif possibility.check('O'):
            status_label.configure(text="O won!")
            disable_game()
            return
    if len(X_points) + len(O_points) == 9:
        status_label.configure(text="Draw!")
        disable_game()
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Python tkinter Tic Tac Toe working demo
Add the following code to display Play again button once the game is over:

def play_again():
    global current_chr
    current_chr = 'X'
    for point in XO_points:
        point.button.configure(state=tk.NORMAL)
        point.reset()
    status_label.configure(text="X's turn")
    play_again_button.pack_forget()
play_again_button = tk.Button(root, text='Play again', font=('Ariel', 15), command=play_again)
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We also need to make changes to function "disable_game" and function "reset" in class "XOPoint":

def disable_game():
    for point in XO_points:
        point.button.configure(state=tk.DISABLED)
    play_again_button.pack()

def reset(self):
        self.button.configure(text="", bg='lightgray')
        if self.value == "X":
            X_points.remove(self)
        elif self.value == "O":
            O_points.remove(self)
        self.value = None
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Python tkinter Tic Tac Toe working demo

Summary

The steps done in this tutorial are:

  1. Create a tkinter window.
  2. Add play area and a label with text "Tic Tac Toe".
  3. Make the GUI functional.
  4. Implement logic to detect win.
  5. Detect draw.
  6. Status Label.
  7. Display whose turn it is.
  8. Create Play again button.

Final code:

import tkinter as tk

root = tk.Tk()
root.resizable(False, False)
root.title("Tic Tac Toe")

tk.Label(root, text="Tic Tac Toe", font=('Ariel', 25)).pack()
status_label = tk.Label(root, text="X's turn", font=('Ariel', 15), bg='green', fg='snow')
status_label.pack(fill=tk.X)
def play_again():
    global current_chr
    current_chr = 'X'
    for point in XO_points:
        point.button.configure(state=tk.NORMAL)
        point.reset()
    status_label.configure(text="X's turn")
    play_again_button.pack_forget()
play_again_button = tk.Button(root, text='Play again', font=('Ariel', 15), command=play_again)

current_chr = "X"

play_area = tk.Frame(root, width=300, height=300, bg='white')
XO_points = []
X_points = []
O_points = []
class XOPoint:
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.value = None
        self.button = tk.Button(play_area, text="", width=10, height=5, command=self.set)
        self.button.grid(row=x, column=y)

    def set(self):
        global current_chr
        if not self.value:
            self.button.configure(text=current_chr, bg='snow', fg='black')
            self.value = current_chr
            if current_chr == "X":
                X_points.append(self)
                current_chr = "O"
                status_label.configure(text="O's turn")
            elif current_chr == "O":
                O_points.append(self)
                current_chr = "X"
                status_label.configure(text="X's turn")
        check_win()

    def reset(self):
        self.button.configure(text="", bg='lightgray')
        if self.value == "X":
            X_points.remove(self)
        elif self.value == "O":
            O_points.remove(self)
        self.value = None
for x in range(1, 4):
    for y in range(1, 4):
        XO_points.append(XOPoint(x, y))
class WinningPossibility:
    def __init__(self, x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3):
        self.x1 = x1
        self.y1 = y1
        self.x2 = x2
        self.y2 = y2
        self.x3 = x3
        self.y3 = y3
    def check(self, for_chr):
        p1_satisfied = False
        p2_satisfied = False
        p3_satisfied = False
        if for_chr == 'X':
            for point in X_points:
                if point.x == self.x1 and point.y == self.y1:
                    p1_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x2 and point.y == self.y2:
                    p2_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x3 and point.y == self.y3:
                    p3_satisfied = True
        elif for_chr == 'O':
            for point in O_points:
                if point.x == self.x1 and point.y == self.y1:
                    p1_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x2 and point.y == self.y2:
                    p2_satisfied = True
                elif point.x == self.x3 and point.y == self.y3:
                    p3_satisfied = True
        return all([p1_satisfied, p2_satisfied, p3_satisfied])
winning_possibilities = [
    WinningPossibility(1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3),
    WinningPossibility(2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3),
    WinningPossibility(3, 1, 3, 2, 3, 3),
    WinningPossibility(1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1),
    WinningPossibility(1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2),
    WinningPossibility(1, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3),
    WinningPossibility(1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3),
    WinningPossibility(3, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3)
]
def disable_game():
    for point in XO_points:
        point.button.configure(state=tk.DISABLED)
    play_again_button.pack()
def check_win():
    for possibility in winning_possibilities:
        if possibility.check('X'):
            status_label.configure(text="X won!")
            disable_game()
            return
        elif possibility.check('O'):
            status_label.configure(text="O won!")
            disable_game()
            return
    if len(X_points) + len(O_points) == 9:
        status_label.configure(text="Draw!")
        disable_game()
play_area.pack(pady=10, padx=10)

root.mainloop()
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GitHub repo link: https://github.com/Jothin-kumar/tic-tac-toe
Python tkinter Tic Tac Toe working demo
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Part 2 of this tutorial: https://dev.to/jothinkumar/tic-tac-toe-with-python-tkinter-part-2-9mp

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