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Jordan Holt
Jordan Holt

Posted on • Originally published at blog.jordanholt.dev on

Array and Object Destructuring

The destructuring syntax in JavaScript was introduced in ES6 and is a powerful expression that makes working with Arrays and Objects much more manageable and provides added flexibility. I was using this syntax early on when importing JavaScript modules without even knowing it! I decided to learn a little bit more about destructuring. In this post I'll share what I've learned.

Using the destructuring assignment syntax we can unpack values from Arrays and properties from Object and assign them into distinct variables.

Lets have a look at the basics of destructuring assignment.

Array destructuring

Using the destructuring syntax we can unpack specific values from an Array and assign them to a variable. Here is an example using basic variable assignment with.

const nameArray = ["Joe", "Frank", "Katherine", "Lisa"];

const [a, b, c] = nameArray;
console.log(a)

Expected output:

"Joe"

We can also assign variable values seperately from the declaration.

let a, b;

[a, b] = ["Joe", "Frank"]
console.log(a, b)

Expected output:

"Joe", "Frank"

…rest

Using the rest pattern we unpack the remaining values in an Array to one variable.

let a;

[a, ...rest] = ["Joe", "Frank", "Katherine", "Lisa"];
console.log(rest);

Expected output:

["Frank", "Katherine", "Lisa"]  

We can name the variable using the ..rest pattern to something other than rest, depending on our use case.

let a, b;

[a, ...remainingNames] = ["Joe", "Frank", "Katherine", "Lisa"];
console.log(remainingNames);    

Object destructuring

Using the same syntax we can extract values from Objects as well using basic destructuring assignment.

const motorcycle = {
    engineType: "750cc",
  type: "cruiser",
  color: "red",
  used: true,
  mileage: 1000,
}

const { color, used, mileage } = motorcycle;
console.log(color, used, mileage)

Expected output:

"red", true, 1000

We can also use the destructuring assignment without a variable declaration, with some additional requirements.

let color, mileage;

({ color, mileage, ...rest } = { 
    engineType: "750cc", 
    type: "cruiser",
    color: "red", 
    used: true, 
    mileage: 1000,
});
console.log(color, mileage)

Notice about how we wrapped the assignment statement in parentheses (…) which is required when not using a variable declaration.

Combining Array and Object destructuring

We commonly work with Arrays of Objects in JavaScript. We can combine Array and Object destructuring.For example if we wanted to extract the name property from the first Object in the users Array below.

const users = [
    { user: 1, name: "Joe" },
    { user: 2, name: "Lisa" },
    { user: 3, name: "Fred" }
];

const [{ name }, b, c] = users;
console.log(name)

Expected output:

"Joe"

Wrap up

In this post we saw how we can use the destructuring syntax in JavaScript to extract values from Arrays and Objects. This can be a great way to cleanly access values. I’ll be diving deeper into destructuring in future posts because its awesome! 😊

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