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OpenGL Programming Using VSCODE

這邊文章是一開簡單的開端,做為後續開發 OpenGL 的基礎教學,如何使用 VSCODE 來開發我們的 OpenGL 程式,這邊作業系統以 Ubuntu 為範例

首先第一步安裝我們的 OpenGL 開發工具 glfw3

透過 apt 安裝開發套件

sudo apt-get install libglfw3
sudo apt-get install libglfw3-dev
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再來我們需要 GLAD 去管理 OpenGL 的各項功能,依照需要的功能去進行載入動作

GLAD

GLAD

📁 透過網站產生檔案下載到本機中,並將檔案複製到 /usr/include 內

sudo cp -r * /usr/include
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並將 glad.c 放入專案同目錄下
編寫 CMakeLists.txt

# cmake 版本
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.9.1)
# 專案名稱
project(CMakeHello)
# 套件搜尋
find_package(glfw3 REQUIRED)
find_package(OpenGL REQUIRED)
find_package(Threads REQUIRED)
# 加入程式與連結函式庫
add_executable(hello_triangle hello_triangle.cpp glad.c)
TARGET_LINK_LIBRARIES(hello_triangle dl glfw3 pthread)
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VSCODE

安裝 CMake Tools Extenstion
CmakeTools

Hello Triangle

將撰寫範例程式 hello_triangle.cpp 這段範例程式在後面的章節中,會再做詳細的介紹!

#include <glad/glad.h>
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>

#include <iostream>

void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height);
void processInput(GLFWwindow *window);

// settings
const unsigned int SCR_WIDTH = 800;
const unsigned int SCR_HEIGHT = 600;

const char *vertexShaderSource = "#version 330 core\n"
    "layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos;\n"
    "void main()\n"
    "{\n"
    "   gl_Position = vec4(aPos.x, aPos.y, aPos.z, 1.0);\n"
    "}\0";
const char *fragmentShaderSource = "#version 330 core\n"
    "out vec4 FragColor;\n"
    "void main()\n"
    "{\n"
    "   FragColor = vec4(1.0f, 0.5f, 0.2f, 1.0f);\n"
    "}\n\0";

int main()
{
    // glfw: initialize and configure
    // ------------------------------
    glfwInit();
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE);

#ifdef __APPLE__
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_FORWARD_COMPAT, GL_TRUE);
#endif

    // glfw window creation
    // --------------------
    GLFWwindow* window = glfwCreateWindow(SCR_WIDTH, SCR_HEIGHT, "LearnOpenGL", NULL, NULL);
    if (window == NULL)
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to create GLFW window" << std::endl;
        glfwTerminate();
        return -1;
    }
    glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);
    glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(window, framebuffer_size_callback);

    // glad: load all OpenGL function pointers
    // ---------------------------------------
    if (!gladLoadGLLoader((GLADloadproc)glfwGetProcAddress))
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to initialize GLAD" << std::endl;
        return -1;
    }


    // build and compile our shader program
    // ------------------------------------
    // vertex shader
    unsigned int vertexShader = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);
    glShaderSource(vertexShader, 1, &vertexShaderSource, NULL);
    glCompileShader(vertexShader);
    // check for shader compile errors
    int success;
    char infoLog[512];
    glGetShaderiv(vertexShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &success);
    if (!success)
    {
        glGetShaderInfoLog(vertexShader, 512, NULL, infoLog);
        std::cout << "ERROR::SHADER::VERTEX::COMPILATION_FAILED\n" << infoLog << std::endl;
    }
    // fragment shader
    unsigned int fragmentShader = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);
    glShaderSource(fragmentShader, 1, &fragmentShaderSource, NULL);
    glCompileShader(fragmentShader);
    // check for shader compile errors
    glGetShaderiv(fragmentShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &success);
    if (!success)
    {
        glGetShaderInfoLog(fragmentShader, 512, NULL, infoLog);
        std::cout << "ERROR::SHADER::FRAGMENT::COMPILATION_FAILED\n" << infoLog << std::endl;
    }
    // link shaders
    unsigned int shaderProgram = glCreateProgram();
    glAttachShader(shaderProgram, vertexShader);
    glAttachShader(shaderProgram, fragmentShader);
    glLinkProgram(shaderProgram);
    // check for linking errors
    glGetProgramiv(shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS, &success);
    if (!success) {
        glGetProgramInfoLog(shaderProgram, 512, NULL, infoLog);
        std::cout << "ERROR::SHADER::PROGRAM::LINKING_FAILED\n" << infoLog << std::endl;
    }
    glDeleteShader(vertexShader);
    glDeleteShader(fragmentShader);

    // set up vertex data (and buffer(s)) and configure vertex attributes
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------
    float vertices[] = {
        -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, // left  
         0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, // right 
         0.0f,  0.5f, 0.0f  // top   
    }; 

    unsigned int VBO, VAO;
    glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);
    // bind the Vertex Array Object first, then bind and set vertex buffer(s), and then configure vertex attributes(s).
    glBindVertexArray(VAO);

    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

    glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 3 * sizeof(float), (void*)0);
    glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);

    // note that this is allowed, the call to glVertexAttribPointer registered VBO as the vertex attribute's bound vertex buffer object so afterwards we can safely unbind
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0); 

    // You can unbind the VAO afterwards so other VAO calls won't accidentally modify this VAO, but this rarely happens. Modifying other
    // VAOs requires a call to glBindVertexArray anyways so we generally don't unbind VAOs (nor VBOs) when it's not directly necessary.
    glBindVertexArray(0); 


    // uncomment this call to draw in wireframe polygons.
    //glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_LINE);

    // render loop
    // -----------
    while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window))
    {
        // input
        // -----
        processInput(window);

        // render
        // ------
        glClearColor(0.2f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 1.0f);
        glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

        // draw our first triangle
        glUseProgram(shaderProgram);
        glBindVertexArray(VAO); // seeing as we only have a single VAO there's no need to bind it every time, but we'll do so to keep things a bit more organized
        glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 3);
        // glBindVertexArray(0); // no need to unbind it every time 

        // glfw: swap buffers and poll IO events (keys pressed/released, mouse moved etc.)
        // -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        glfwSwapBuffers(window);
        glfwPollEvents();
    }

    // optional: de-allocate all resources once they've outlived their purpose:
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &VBO);
    glDeleteProgram(shaderProgram);

    // glfw: terminate, clearing all previously allocated GLFW resources.
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------
    glfwTerminate();
    return 0;
}

// process all input: query GLFW whether relevant keys are pressed/released this frame and react accordingly
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void processInput(GLFWwindow *window)
{
    if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS)
        glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, true);
}

// glfw: whenever the window size changed (by OS or user resize) this callback function executes
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height)
{
    // make sure the viewport matches the new window dimensions; note that width and 
    // height will be significantly larger than specified on retina displays.
    glViewport(0, 0, width, height);
}
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Compile & Run

<Ctrl> + <SHIT> + P 開啟VSCODE命令工具,執行 CMake:Debug
command palette

Result

Result

Debug

我們可以在 VSCODE 下中斷點,來監看我們的變數
Debug

Conclusion

完成我們的基本配置,接下來就可以更順利的開發我們的 OpenGL 程式 !

Reference

https://learnopengl.com/Getting-started/Hello-Triangle

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