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Eric Bishard
Eric Bishard

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Web3 Unleashed: The MetaMask API

Overview

In this edition of Web3 Unleashed, we're interviewing the MetaMask DevRel team Gui Bibeau and Eric Bishard about the MetaMask API and other tools and features on the horizon like their MetaMask SDK. We'll will be building a dapp live with them to custom integrate MetaMask into a NextJS application!

If you would like to follow along with the Web3 Unleashed Episode #7 demo during or after the stream, below are the steps we walked through to build our dapp integration with MetaMask API.

Prerequisites

Clone and Install Dependencies

Clone the MetaMask API Web3 Unleashed repo and once in the directory we want to ensure we are on the main branch and run:

npm i && npm run dev
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This will give us a starting point in a NextJS application to build our demo.

Connecting the User

We will start by updating the hooks/useMetamask.tsx file. This is our global app context that utilizes "out of the box" Context API in React.

Update hooks/useMetamask.tsx file:

import React, { useEffect, type PropsWithChildren } from "react";

type ConnectAction = { type: "connect"; wallet: string };
type DisconnectAction = { type: "disconnect" };
type PageLoadedAction = { type: "pageLoaded"; isMetamaskInstalled: boolean };
type LoadingAction = { type: "loading" };

type Action =
  | ConnectAction
  | DisconnectAction
  | PageLoadedAction
  | LoadingAction;

type Dispatch = (action: Action) => void;

type Status = "loading" | "idle" | "pageNotLoaded";

type State = {
  wallet: string | null;
  isMetamaskInstalled: boolean;
  status: Status;
};

const MetamaskContext = React.createContext<
  { state: State; dispatch: Dispatch } | undefined
>(undefined);

const initialState: State = {
  wallet: null,
  isMetamaskInstalled: false,
  status: "loading",
} as const;

function metamaskReducer(state: State, action: Action): State {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "connect": {
      const { wallet } = action;
      return { ...state, wallet, status: "idle" };
    }
    case "disconnect": {
      return { ...state, wallet: null };
    }
    case "pageLoaded": {
      const { isMetamaskInstalled } = action;
      return { ...state, isMetamaskInstalled, status: "idle" };
    }
    case "loading": {
      return { ...state, status: "loading" };
    }
    default: {
      throw new Error("Unhandled action type");
    }
  }
}

function MetamaskProvider({ children }: PropsWithChildren) {
  const [state, dispatch] = React.useReducer(metamaskReducer, initialState);
  const value = { state, dispatch };

  useEffect(() => {
    if (typeof window !== undefined) {
      // start by checking if window.ethereum is present, indicating a wallet extension
      const ethereumProviderInjected = typeof window.ethereum !== "undefined";
      // this could be other wallets so we can verify if we are dealing with metamask
      // using the boolean constructor to be explicit and not let this be used as a falsy value (optional)
      const isMetamaskInstalled =
        ethereumProviderInjected && Boolean(window.ethereum.isMetaMask);

      dispatch({ type: "pageLoaded", isMetamaskInstalled });
    }
  }, []);

  return (
    <MetamaskContext.Provider value={value}>
      {children}
    </MetamaskContext.Provider>
  );
}

function useMetamask() {
  const context = React.useContext(MetamaskContext);
  if (context === undefined) {
    throw new Error("useMetamask must be used within a MetamaskProvider");
  }
  return context;
}

export { MetamaskProvider, useMetamask };
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The above change is by far one of our largest changes that we will do at one time but this file is in charge of helping us keep our application state in sync with the wallet state and is crucial so that we can build the components and features that we want.

After this change you will might notice red squiggly lines under the window.ethereum object, this is only because if we want TypeScript to stop yelling at us in our code editor, we need to tell it what window.ethereum is type-wise.

Add the file types.d.ts to the app root:

type InjectedProviders = {
  isMetaMask?: true;
};

interface Window {
  ethereum: InjectedProviders & {
    on: (...args: any[]) => void;
    removeListener?: (...args: any[]) => void;
    request<T = any>(args: any): Promise<T>;
  };
}
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You should no longer see those warnings in your hooks/useMetamask.tsx file.

Create a components/Loading.tsx file:

import { type FC } from "react";

const dot = `rounded-full h-2 w-2 mx-0.5 bg-current animate-[blink_1s_ease_0s_infinite_normal_both]"`;

export const Loading: FC = () => {
  return (
    <span className="inline-flex text-center items-center leading-7 h-6">
      <span className={dot} key="dot_1'" />
      <span className={dot} style={{ animationDelay: "0.2s" }} key="dot_2" />
      <span className={dot} style={{ animationDelay: "0.2s" }} key="dot_3" />
    </span>
  );
};
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With our Type Definitions added, our Context Provider updated, and our Loading.tsx in place, we can now make changes to our components/Wallet.tsx file and add a loading state for our app.

Update the components/Wallet.tsx file to:

import Image from "next/future/image";
import Link from "next/link";
import { useMetamask } from "../hooks/useMetamask";
import { Loading } from "./Loading";

export default function Wallet() {
  const {
    dispatch,
    state: { status, isMetamaskInstalled },
  } = useMetamask();

  const showInstallMetamask = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && !isMetamaskInstalled;
  const showConnectButton = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && isMetamaskInstalled;

  const handleConnect = async () => {
    dispatch({ type: "loading" });
    const accounts = await window.ethereum.request({
      method: "eth_requestAccounts",
    });

    if (accounts.length > 0) {
      dispatch({ type: "connect", wallet: accounts[0] });
    }
  };

  return (
    <div className="bg-truffle">
      <div className="mx-auto max-w-2xl py-16 px-4 text-center sm:py-20 sm:px-6 lg:px-8">
        <h2 className="text-3xl font-bold tracking-tight text-white sm:text-4xl">
          <span className="block">Metamask API intro</span>
        </h2>
        <p className="mt-4 text-lg leading-6 text-white">
          Follow along with the{" "}
          <Link
            href="https://github.com/GuiBibeau/web3-unleashed-demo"
            target="_blank"
          >
            <span className="underline cursor-pointer">Repo</span>
          </Link>{" "}
          in order to learn how to use the Metamask API.
        </p>
        {showConnectButton && (
          <button
            onClick={handleConnect}
            className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
          >
            {status === "loading" ? <Loading /> : "Connect Wallet"}
          </button>
        )}

        {showInstallMetamask && (
          <Link href="https://metamask.io/" target="_blank">
            <a className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto">
              Connect Wallet
            </a>
          </Link>
        )}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
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This imports the loading component, further destructures the return value of our useMetaMask() custom hook, sets up variables to track if MetaMask is installed or connected for conditional rendering and gives us a handleConnect() function for dispatching changes to our state reducer.

If we are tracking our changes we can see that we have touched 4 files by creating or updating/refactoring. At this point we should be able to connect a user to our dapp with MetaMask.

Run the project and attempt to connect to your MetaMask wallet.

npm run dev
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Two things are happening now:

  1. If a user does not have MetaMask installed they will get a "Connect Wallet" button that simply takes you to download MetaMask.
  2. If MetaMask is installed they will see a "Connect Wallet" button that actually connects their wallet to the dapp.

We are not yet hiding the button once connected or displaying any wallet information. As well, you will notice in MetaMask that you are connected to the dapp. To test the Install link you can go into your extension manager and disable MetaMask temporarily.

Checkout the Diff to see what changed

Use the MetaMask API to get User Info

We want to display the a balance from our wallet, and the public address of the wallet account that is connected to our dapp. For this we need to make a few changes again to the hooks/useMetamask.tsx and add the logic and JSX/HTML in our components/Wallet.tsx.

Update hooks/useMetamask.tsx to:

import React, { useEffect, type PropsWithChildren } from "react";

type ConnectAction = { type: "connect"; wallet: string; balance: string };
type DisconnectAction = { type: "disconnect" };
type PageLoadedAction = { type: "pageLoaded"; isMetamaskInstalled: boolean };
type LoadingAction = { type: "loading" };

type Action =
  | ConnectAction
  | DisconnectAction
  | PageLoadedAction
  | LoadingAction;

type Dispatch = (action: Action) => void;

type Status = "loading" | "idle" | "pageNotLoaded";

type State = {
  wallet: string | null;
  isMetamaskInstalled: boolean;
  status: Status;
  balance: string | null;
};

const initialState: State = {
  wallet: null,
  isMetamaskInstalled: false,
  status: "loading",
  balance: null,
} as const;

function metamaskReducer(state: State, action: Action): State {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "connect": {
      const { wallet, balance } = action;
      return { ...state, wallet, balance, status: "idle" };
    }
    case "disconnect": {
      return { ...state, wallet: null };
    }
    case "pageLoaded": {
      const { isMetamaskInstalled } = action;
      return { ...state, isMetamaskInstalled, status: "idle" };
    }
    case "loading": {
      return { ...state, status: "loading" };
    }
    default: {
      throw new Error("Unhandled action type");
    }
  }
}

const MetamaskContext = React.createContext<
  { state: State; dispatch: Dispatch } | undefined
>(undefined);

function MetamaskProvider({ children }: PropsWithChildren) {
  const [state, dispatch] = React.useReducer(metamaskReducer, initialState);
  const value = { state, dispatch };

  useEffect(() => {
    if (typeof window !== undefined) {
      // start by checking if window.ethereum is present, indicating a wallet extension
      const ethereumProviderInjected = typeof window.ethereum !== "undefined";
      // this could be other wallets so we can verify if we are dealing with metamask
      // using the boolean constructor to be explecit and not let this be used as a falsy value (optional)
      const isMetamaskInstalled =
        ethereumProviderInjected && Boolean(window.ethereum.isMetaMask);

      dispatch({ type: "pageLoaded", isMetamaskInstalled });
    }
  }, []);

  return (
    <MetamaskContext.Provider value={value}>
      {children}
    </MetamaskContext.Provider>
  );
}

function useMetamask() {
  const context = React.useContext(MetamaskContext);
  if (context === undefined) {
    throw new Error("useMetamask must be used within a MetamaskProvider");
  }
  return context;
}

export { MetamaskProvider, useMetamask };
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We have done some slight refactoring to account for the ability to track the state of the wallet balance, added balance to our initialState, and updated our connect action in our reducer

Update components/Wallet.tsx to:

import Image from "next/future/image";
import Link from "next/link";
import { useMetamask } from "../hooks/useMetamask";
import { Loading } from "./Loading";

export default function Wallet() {
  const {
    dispatch,
    state: { status, isMetamaskInstalled, wallet, balance },
  } = useMetamask();

  const showInstallMetamask = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && !isMetamaskInstalled;
  const showConnectButton = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && isMetamaskInstalled && !wallet;

  const handleConnect = async () => {
    dispatch({ type: "loading" });
    const accounts = await window.ethereum.request({
      method: "eth_requestAccounts",
    });

    if (accounts.length > 0) {
      const balance = await window.ethereum!.request({
        method: "eth_getBalance",
        params: [accounts[0], "latest"],
      });

      dispatch({ type: "connect", wallet: accounts[0], balance });
    }
  };

  return (
    <div className="bg-truffle">
      <div className="mx-auto max-w-2xl py-16 px-4 text-center sm:py-20 sm:px-6 lg:px-8">
        <h2 className="text-3xl font-bold tracking-tight text-white sm:text-4xl">
          <span className="block">Metamask API intro</span>
        </h2>
        <p className="mt-4 text-lg leading-6 text-white">
          Follow along with the{" "}
          <Link
            href="https://github.com/GuiBibeau/web3-unleashed-demo"
            target="_blank"
          >
            <span className="underline cursor-pointer">Repo</span>
          </Link>{" "}
          in order to learn how to use the Metamask API.
        </p>

        {wallet && (
          <div className=" px-4 py-5 sm:px-6">
            <div className="-ml-4 -mt-4 flex flex-wrap items-center justify-between sm:flex-nowrap">
              <div className="ml-4 mt-4">
                <div className="flex items-center">
                  <div className="ml-4">
                    <h3 className="text-lg font-medium leading-6 text-white">
                      Address: <span>{wallet}</span>
                    </h3>
                    <p className="text-sm text-white">
                      Balance: <span>{balance}</span>
                    </p>
                  </div>
                </div>
              </div>
            </div>
          </div>
        )}

        {showConnectButton && (
          <button
            onClick={handleConnect}
            className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
          >
            {status === "loading" ? <Loading /> : "Connect Wallet"}
          </button>
        )}

        {showInstallMetamask && (
          <Link href="https://metamask.io/" target="_blank">
            <a className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto">
              Connect Wallet
            </a>
          </Link>
        )}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
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As well we have added balance to our destructured object so that we have access to it in our component, updated the showConnectButton logic and requested the balance using the eth_getBalance MetaMask (RPC API) method.

We have also updated our JSX/HTML to include an address and balance.

This is a great start, but our UI is still lacking and there is more logic we need to properly track our wallet state and update the page because if we connect to our wallet we get a funny display for our balance and if we refresh our page, we don't see our address and balance. But we will now fix those issues.

Checkout the Diff to see what changed

Two Way Communication with MetaMask

Again we will be updating the hooks/useMetamask.tsx and components/Wallet.tsx files. The idea will be to add a few more reducer actions including Loading and Idle states for the page, we will fix our button to say "Install MetaMask" instead of "Connect MetaMask" and we will parse the balance to display a readable number.

Finally, we will add some code that uses the wallet_watchAsset MetaMask (RPC API) method to add $USDC token to our MetaMask wallet. This will enable our users to see those tokens in their wallet if they have them. If a dApp uses a particular token, we can programmatically do this for them rather than expecting to do it themselves manually through the MetMask UI.

Update hooks/useMetamask.tsx to:

import React, { useEffect, type PropsWithChildren } from "react";

type ConnectAction = { type: "connect"; wallet: string; balance: string };
type DisconnectAction = { type: "disconnect" };
type PageLoadedAction = { type: "pageLoaded"; isMetamaskInstalled: boolean };
type LoadingAction = { type: "loading" };
type IdleAction = { type: "idle" };

type Action =
  | ConnectAction
  | DisconnectAction
  | PageLoadedAction
  | LoadingAction
  | IdleAction;

type Dispatch = (action: Action) => void;

type Status = "loading" | "idle" | "pageNotLoaded";

type State = {
  wallet: string | null;
  isMetamaskInstalled: boolean;
  status: Status;
  balance: string | null;
};

const initialState: State = {
  wallet: null,
  isMetamaskInstalled: false,
  status: "loading",
  balance: null,
} as const;

function metamaskReducer(state: State, action: Action): State {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "connect": {
      const { wallet, balance } = action;
      return { ...state, wallet, balance, status: "idle" };
    }
    case "disconnect": {
      return { ...state, wallet: null, balance: null };
    }
    case "pageLoaded": {
      const { isMetamaskInstalled } = action;
      return { ...state, isMetamaskInstalled, status: "idle" };
    }
    case "loading": {
      return { ...state, status: "loading" };
    }
    case "idle": {
      return { ...state, status: "idle" };
    }
    default: {
      throw new Error("Unhandled action type");
    }
  }
}

const MetamaskContext = React.createContext<
  { state: State; dispatch: Dispatch } | undefined
>(undefined);

function MetamaskProvider({ children }: PropsWithChildren) {
  const [state, dispatch] = React.useReducer(metamaskReducer, initialState);
  const value = { state, dispatch };

  useEffect(() => {
    if (typeof window !== undefined) {
      // start by checking if window.ethereum is present, indicating a wallet extension
      const ethereumProviderInjected = typeof window.ethereum !== "undefined";
      // this could be other wallets so we can verify if we are dealing with metamask
      // using the boolean constructor to be explecit and not let this be used as a falsy value (optional)
      const isMetamaskInstalled =
        ethereumProviderInjected && Boolean(window.ethereum.isMetaMask);

      dispatch({ type: "pageLoaded", isMetamaskInstalled });
    }
  }, []);

  return (
    <MetamaskContext.Provider value={value}>
      {children}
    </MetamaskContext.Provider>
  );
}

function useMetamask() {
  const context = React.useContext(MetamaskContext);
  if (context === undefined) {
    throw new Error("useMetamask must be used within a MetamaskProvider");
  }
  return context;
}

export { MetamaskProvider, useMetamask };
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Update components/Wallet.tsx to:

import Link from "next/link";
import { useMetamask } from "../hooks/useMetamask";
import { Loading } from "./Loading";

export default function Wallet() {
  const {
    dispatch,
    state: { status, isMetamaskInstalled, wallet, balance },
  } = useMetamask();

  const showInstallMetamask = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && !isMetamaskInstalled;
  const showConnectButton = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && isMetamaskInstalled && !wallet;

  const showAddToken = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && typeof wallet === "string";

  const handleConnect = async () => {
    dispatch({ type: "loading" });
    const accounts = await window.ethereum.request({
      method: "eth_requestAccounts",
    });

    if (accounts.length > 0) {
      const balance = await window.ethereum!.request({
        method: "eth_getBalance",
        params: [accounts[0], "latest"],
      });

      dispatch({ type: "connect", wallet: accounts[0], balance });

      // we can register an event listener for changes to the users wallet
      window.ethereum.on("accountsChanged", async (newAccounts: string[]) => {
        if (newAccounts.length > 0) {
          // uppon receiving a new wallet, we'll request again the balance to synchronize the UI.
          const newBalance = await window.ethereum!.request({
            method: "eth_getBalance",
            params: [newAccounts[0], "latest"],
          });

          dispatch({
            type: "connect",
            wallet: newAccounts[0],
            balance: newBalance,
          });
        } else {
          // if the length is 0, then the user has disconnected from the wallet UI
          dispatch({ type: "disconnect" });
        }
      });
    }
  };

  const handleAddUsdc = async () => {
    dispatch({ type: "loading" });

    await window.ethereum.request({
      method: "wallet_watchAsset",
      params: {
        type: "ERC20",
        options: {
          address: "0xA0b86991c6218b36c1d19D4a2e9Eb0cE3606eB48",
          symbol: "USDC",
          decimals: 18,
          image: "https://cryptologos.cc/logos/usd-coin-usdc-logo.svg?v=023",
        },
      },
    });
    dispatch({ type: "idle" });
  };

  return (
    <div className="bg-truffle">
      <div className="mx-auto max-w-2xl py-16 px-4 text-center sm:py-20 sm:px-6 lg:px-8">
        <h2 className="text-3xl font-bold tracking-tight text-white sm:text-4xl">
          <span className="block">Metamask API intro</span>
        </h2>
        <p className="mt-4 text-lg leading-6 text-white">
          Follow along with the{" "}
          <Link
            href="https://github.com/GuiBibeau/web3-unleashed-demo"
            target="_blank"
          >
            <span className="underline cursor-pointer">Repo</span>
          </Link>{" "}
          in order to learn how to use the Metamask API.
        </p>

        {wallet && balance && (
          <div className=" px-4 py-5 sm:px-6">
            <div className="-ml-4 -mt-4 flex flex-wrap items-center justify-between sm:flex-nowrap">
              <div className="ml-4 mt-4">
                <div className="flex items-center">
                  <div className="ml-4">
                    <h3 className="text-lg font-medium leading-6 text-white">
                      Address: <span>{wallet}</span>
                    </h3>
                    <p className="text-sm text-white">
                      Balance:{" "}
                      <span>
                        {(parseInt(balance) / 1000000000000000000).toFixed(4)}{" "} ETH
                      </span>
                    </p>
                  </div>
                </div>
              </div>
            </div>
          </div>
        )}

        {showConnectButton && (
          <button
            onClick={handleConnect}
            className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
          >
            {status === "loading" ? <Loading /> : "Connect Wallet"}
          </button>
        )}

        {showInstallMetamask && (
          <Link href="https://metamask.io/" target="_blank">
            <a className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto">
              Install Metamask
            </a>
          </Link>
        )}

        {showAddToken && (
          <button
            onClick={handleAddUsdc}
            className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
          >
            {status === "loading" ? <Loading /> : "Add Token"}
          </button>
        )}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
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With those changes in place we can now install, connect to and view information from our MetaMask wallet. We can also see a nicely formatted version of our ETH balance and we can see $USDC tokens in our wallet.

Checkout the Diff to see what changed

We have one more UX improvement to push our dapp.

More UX Goodies

We'd like to store some MetaMask state in the browser's local storage to help us create a Disconnect button, something that we feel makes the UX better in a dapp. We will register an event listener for changes to the users wallet, so that when connecting and disconnecting the UX is just a little bit better. We will add a custom React Hook called useListen to help us achieve this and to co-locate some code that would otherwise be added in two different components so that our final code is a bit cleaner. We do a small refactor to get rid of a useEffect and we will display our buttons side by side when we have more than one showing on the page (Disconnect & Add Tokens) and we will use Tailwind's flex-box options to make this easy.

Update hooks/useMetamask.tsx

import React, { useEffect, type PropsWithChildren } from "react";

type ConnectAction = { type: "connect"; wallet: string; balance: string };
type DisconnectAction = { type: "disconnect" };
type PageLoadedAction = {
  type: "pageLoaded";
  isMetamaskInstalled: boolean;
  wallet: string | null;
  balance: string | null;
};
type LoadingAction = { type: "loading" };
type IdleAction = { type: "idle" };

type Action =
  | ConnectAction
  | DisconnectAction
  | PageLoadedAction
  | LoadingAction
  | IdleAction;

type Dispatch = (action: Action) => void;

type Status = "loading" | "idle" | "pageNotLoaded";

type State = {
  wallet: string | null;
  isMetamaskInstalled: boolean;
  status: Status;
  balance: string | null;
};

const initialState: State = {
  wallet: null,
  isMetamaskInstalled: false,
  status: "loading",
  balance: null,
} as const;

function metamaskReducer(state: State, action: Action): State {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "connect": {
      const { wallet, balance } = action;
      const newState = { ...state, wallet, balance, status: "idle" } as State;
      const info = JSON.stringify(newState);
      window.localStorage.setItem("metamaskState", info);

      return newState;
    }
    case "disconnect": {
      window.localStorage.removeItem("metamaskState");
      return { ...state, wallet: null, balance: null };
    }
    case "pageLoaded": {
      const { isMetamaskInstalled, balance, wallet } = action;
      return { ...state, isMetamaskInstalled, status: "idle", wallet, balance };
    }
    case "loading": {
      return { ...state, status: "loading" };
    }
    case "idle": {
      return { ...state, status: "idle" };
    }
    default: {
      throw new Error("Unhandled action type");
    }
  }
}

const MetamaskContext = React.createContext<
  { state: State; dispatch: Dispatch } | undefined
>(undefined);

function MetamaskProvider({ children }: PropsWithChildren) {
  const [state, dispatch] = React.useReducer(metamaskReducer, initialState);
  const value = { state, dispatch };

  return (
    <MetamaskContext.Provider value={value}>
      {children}
    </MetamaskContext.Provider>
  );
}

function useMetamask() {
  const context = React.useContext(MetamaskContext);
  if (context === undefined) {
    throw new Error("useMetamask must be used within a MetamaskProvider");
  }
  return context;
}

export { MetamaskProvider, useMetamask };
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Create hooks/useListen.tsx

import { useMetamask } from "./useMetamask";

export const useListen = () => {
  const { dispatch } = useMetamask();

  return () => {
    window.ethereum.on("accountsChanged", async (newAccounts: string[]) => {
      if (newAccounts.length > 0) {
        // uppon receiving a new wallet, we'll request again the balance to synchronize the UI.
        const newBalance = await window.ethereum!.request({
          method: "eth_getBalance",
          params: [newAccounts[0], "latest"],
        });

        dispatch({
          type: "connect",
          wallet: newAccounts[0],
          balance: newBalance,
        });
      } else {
        // if the length is 0, then the user has disconnected from the wallet UI
        dispatch({ type: "disconnect" });
      }
    });
  };
};
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Update components/Wallet.tsx

import Link from "next/link";
import { useListen } from "../hooks/useListen";
import { useMetamask } from "../hooks/useMetamask";
import { Loading } from "./Loading";

export default function Wallet() {
  const {
    dispatch,
    state: { status, isMetamaskInstalled, wallet, balance },
  } = useMetamask();
  const listen = useListen();

  const showInstallMetamask = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && !isMetamaskInstalled;
  const showConnectButton = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && isMetamaskInstalled && !wallet;

  const isConnected = status !== "pageNotLoaded" && typeof wallet === "string";

  const handleConnect = async () => {
    dispatch({ type: "loading" });
    const accounts = await window.ethereum.request({
      method: "eth_requestAccounts",
    });

    if (accounts.length > 0) {
      const balance = await window.ethereum!.request({
        method: "eth_getBalance",
        params: [accounts[0], "latest"],
      });

      dispatch({ type: "connect", wallet: accounts[0], balance });

      // we can register an event listener for changes to the users wallet
      listen();
    }
  };

  const handleDisconnect = () => {
    dispatch({ type: "disconnect" });
  };

  const handleAddUsdc = async () => {
    dispatch({ type: "loading" });

    await window.ethereum.request({
      method: "wallet_watchAsset",
      params: {
        type: "ERC20",
        options: {
          address: "0xA0b86991c6218b36c1d19D4a2e9Eb0cE3606eB48",
          symbol: "USDC",
          decimals: 18,
          image: "https://cryptologos.cc/logos/usd-coin-usdc-logo.svg?v=023",
        },
      },
    });
    dispatch({ type: "idle" });
  };


  return (
    <div className="bg-truffle">
      <div className="mx-auto max-w-2xl py-16 px-4 text-center sm:py-20 sm:px-6 lg:px-8">
        <h2 className="text-3xl font-bold tracking-tight text-white sm:text-4xl">
          <span className="block">Metamask API intro</span>
        </h2>
        <p className="mt-4 text-lg leading-6 text-white">
          Follow along with the{" "}
          <Link
            href="https://github.com/GuiBibeau/web3-unleashed-demo"
            target="_blank"
          >
            <span className="underline cursor-pointer">Repo</span>
          </Link>{" "}
          in order to learn how to use the Metamask API.
        </p>

        {wallet && balance && (
          <div className=" px-4 py-5 sm:px-6">
            <div className="-ml-4 -mt-4 flex flex-wrap items-center justify-between sm:flex-nowrap">
              <div className="ml-4 mt-4">
                <div className="flex items-center">
                  <div className="ml-4">
                    <h3 className="text-lg font-medium leading-6 text-white">
                      Address: <span>{wallet}</span>
                    </h3>
                    <p className="text-sm text-white">
                      Balance:{" "}
                      <span>
                        {(parseInt(balance) / 1000000000000000000).toFixed(4)}{" "} ETH
                      </span>
                    </p>
                  </div>
                </div>
              </div>
            </div>
          </div>
        )}

        {showConnectButton && (
          <button
            onClick={handleConnect}
            className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
          >
            {status === "loading" ? <Loading /> : "Connect Wallet"}
          </button>
        )}

        {showInstallMetamask && (
          <Link href="https://metamask.io/" target="_blank">
            <a className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto">
              Install Metamask
            </a>
          </Link>
        )}

        {isConnected && (
          <div className="flex  w-full justify-center space-x-2">
            <button
              onClick={handleAddUsdc}
              className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
            >
              {status === "loading" ? <Loading /> : "Add Token"}
            </button>
            <button
              onClick={handleDisconnect}
              className="mt-8 inline-flex w-full items-center justify-center rounded-md border border-transparent bg-ganache text-white px-5 py-3 text-base font-medium  sm:w-auto"
            >
              Disconnect
            </button>
          </div>
        )}

      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
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Finally, we will update our pages/index.tsx file with a useEffect to wrap all of these final changes up.

Update pages/index/tsx

import type { NextPage } from "next";
import { useEffect } from "react";
import Wallet from "../components/Wallet";
import { useListen } from "../hooks/useListen";
import { useMetamask } from "../hooks/useMetamask";

const Home: NextPage = () => {
  const { dispatch } = useMetamask();
  const listen = useListen();

  useEffect(() => {
    if (typeof window !== undefined) {
      // start by checking if window.ethereum is present, indicating a wallet extension
      const ethereumProviderInjected = typeof window.ethereum !== "undefined";
      // this could be other wallets so we can verify if we are dealing with metamask
      // using the boolean constructor to be explecit and not let this be used as a falsy value (optional)
      const isMetamaskInstalled =
        ethereumProviderInjected && Boolean(window.ethereum.isMetaMask);

      const local = window.localStorage.getItem("metamaskState");

      // user was previously connected, start listening to MM
      if (local) {
        listen();
      }

      // local could be null if not present in LocalStorage
      const { wallet, balance } = local
        ? JSON.parse(local)
        : // backup if local storage is empty
          { wallet: null, balance: null };

      dispatch({ type: "pageLoaded", isMetamaskInstalled, wallet, balance });
    }
  }, []);

  return (
    <>
      <Wallet />
    </>
  );
};

export default Home;
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In this last page update to pages/index.tsx we have relocated the useEffect from the hooks/useMetaMask.tsx page for separation of concerns since the hook is consuming dispatch as a proper next step would to be creating a layout page with NextJS, but since we only have one page we simply added this code here.

We have updated our hooks/useMetamask.tsx page's PageLoadAction to include wallet and balance as well as the code required to access our local storage and rehydrate our app.

With those changes in place we have also updated our components/Wallet.tsx page to use our useListen hook since we are using that code in multiple places now, updated the showAddToken variable to a more descriptive name of isConnected, and added a handleDisconnect() function to dispatch an action clearing local storage in our browser.

This also required a slight update to our JSX/HTML to display our buttons more neatly.

Checkout the Diff to see what changed

Remove Listeners after Disconnect

We have one final change we want to make to ensure that we stop listening to changes once the user has disconnected their wallet.

We will update the and files. This will make TypeScript definitions file aware of the removeAllListeners() method we will be using as well add necessary code to the disconnect case inside the metamaskReducer.

Update types.d.ts file:

type InjectedProviders = {
  isMetaMask?: true;
};

interface Window {
  ethereum: InjectedProviders & {
    on: (...args: any[]) => void;
    removeListener: (...args: any[]) => void;
    removeAllListeners: (...args: any[]) => void;
    request<T = any>(args: any): Promise<T>;
  };
}
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Update the case statement in the useMetamask.tsx file to:

    case "disconnect": {
      window.localStorage.removeItem("metamaskState");
      if (typeof window.ethereum !== undefined) {
        window.ethereum.removeAllListeners(["accountsChanged"]);
      }
      return { ...state, wallet: null, balance: null };
    }
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Again, here we have simply ensured that all listeners added after connecting the wallet stop listening once the user is disconnected.

This concludes the demo! But you're just getting started, for a challenge, try updating the UI, try to add functionality to switch chains and overall have fun, if you have any questions or need help with MetaMask, reach out to our DevRel team on Twitter. You can contact Gui Bibeau and Eric Bishard with any questions or feedback.

One final note, Gui has a great resource and blog called web3-fullstack where he waxes poetically about Web3, full stack development and UX which is a great resource for Web2 developers getting into Web3 as well as seasoned veterans of the space!

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