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Himanshu Gupta
Himanshu Gupta

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composer.json Details

composer.json is a configuration file used in PHP projects that utilize the Composer dependency manager. It is typically located in the root directory of the project and contains information about the project's dependencies, as well as other metadata such as the project name, description, version, and author.

The composer.json file is written in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format and consists of several key-value pairs. The most important key in the file is require, which specifies the dependencies required by the project. Dependencies are typically specified as a package name followed by a version constraint.

Other common keys in the composer.json file include name, which specifies the name of the project, description, which provides a brief description of the project, version, which specifies the project's version number, and authors, which lists the authors of the project.

Once the composer.json file has been created or modified, the user can run the composer install command to install the dependencies specified in the file. Composer will then download and install the required packages and their dependencies, along with any necessary configuration files and scripts. This allows developers to easily manage the dependencies of their PHP projects and ensures that the project's dependencies are consistent across different environments.

Basic Project Information
on starting Composer we will find basic information like project name, project Description, which technical we are using.

 "name": "laravel/laravel",
    "type": "project",
    "description": "The Laravel Framework.",
    "keywords": [
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Package Dependencies
The require key in the composer.json file specifies the package dependencies of the project. Dependencies can be specified using either the exact version number of a package or a version constraint. For example, the following code specifies that the project depends on the latest version of the monolog/monolog package:

    "require": {
        "php": "^7.2.5|^8.0",
        "fideloper/proxy": "^4.4",
        "fruitcake/laravel-cors": "^2.0",
        "guzzlehttp/guzzle": "^7.4",
        "laravel/framework": "^7.29",
        "laravel/socialite": "^5.5",
        "laravel/tinker": "^2.5",
        "laravelcollective/html": "^6.2",
        "mews/purifier": "^3.3",
        "paypal/rest-api-sdk-php": "^1.14",
        "rachidlaasri/laravel-installer": "^4.1",
        "razorpay/razorpay": "^2.8",
        "spatie/laravel-cookie-consent": "^2.12",
        "spatie/laravel-permission": "^5.1",
        "stripe/stripe-php": "^7.100"
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In this example, the ^2.0 version constraint specifies that the project requires any version of the monolog/monolog package that is at least version 2.0, but less than 3.0.
Package's Dependence

 "require-dev": {
        "facade/ignition": "^2.0",
        "fakerphp/faker": "^1.9.1",
        "mockery/mockery": "^1.3.1",
        "nunomaduro/collision": "^4.3",
        "phpunit/phpunit": "^8.5.8|^9.3.3"
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Image description

Package Repositories
The repositories key in the composer.json file can be used to specify additional package repositories beyond the default Packagist repository. This can be useful if a package is not available on Packagist, or if a private package repository is being used.

The autoload key in the composer.json file specifies how classes and other files should be autoloaded by the project. This can include PSR-4 and PSR-0 autoloading, as well as custom class mappings.

The scripts key in the composer.json file specifies scripts that should be run during the installation process or other Composer events. This can include running unit tests, running code quality checks, or building assets.

Lock File
When composer install or composer update is run, Composer creates a composer.lock file in the project's root directory. This file specifies the exact versions of all installed packages, along with their dependencies. The lock file is used to ensure that the same dependencies are installed on all machines and environments where the project is deployed.

Custom Configuration
The extra key in the composer.json file can be used to specify custom configuration options for packages or for the Composer installation itself.

Overall, the composer.json file is an important tool for managing dependencies in PHP projects, allowing developers to easily specify and install required packages, as well as configure autoloading and other project settings.

Top comments (1)

markskayff profile image
Marcos Scaianschi

Seems the code examples are not in sync with the description in the article now.