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Guilherme Alves do Monte
Guilherme Alves do Monte

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Networking for offensive security {0.1}


First and foremost, allow me to introduce myself, I am a CyberSecurity Red Team employee at Hotmart. I have a degree in computer science and it would be an honor to teach someone else. So let's get started. 🚀🚀

This article is a means by which I hope to assist someone else who shares the same doubts that I had when I first began in cyber security. I watched a lot of videos that showed us how to use NMAP and how to find open ports in IP hosts or DNS, but I found that none of them provided a more thorough explanation of how NMAP accomplishes this, so I decided to write something to assist those who are more curious about how it works. This is the first article from a sequence of articles that i will use to explain more aboute CyberSecurity and Offensive Security, i hope that you enjoy the journey. 😆

Remembering that this is the first arcticle and a introductory arcticle, follow for the complete pathing

What is a networking and how it's works 💡

A networking is a collection of interconnected devices, such as servers, switches, and computers, that can communicate with one another and share resources. Network protocols and communication technology provide this capabilities. Network cables, fiber optics, and wireless networks are utilized as the physical label for communication. These devices convert data into electrical signals. TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, and other protocols are used to transmit this data, and we'll study more about them later. Equipment like routers and switches assist in efficiently sending the package data to the correct location.

The interaction Client-Server connections are often used when browsing in networking. These connections are formed straight from the client to the server when you enter a website and want anything, such as opening a photo or uploading a photo.

The TCP/IP Model🔋

Also knows as transmission control protocol(TCP) this's a protocol model that are used in real world it's a group of protocols communication that we use in internet and in modern computer networking, this protocol use four layers of communication.


When it comes to communication with devices and services that use networking, this layer is the highest layer in the TCP/IP model it does a fantastic job. This interacts directly with users and applications, enabling access to and sharing information through networks. The following protocols are compatible with the TCP/IP model: Each of the protocols HTTP, SMTP, POP3, FTP, and DNS any of these has a purpose. This layer is where users interact with a graphical user interface (GUI), as well as alternative ways like command lines or APIs. This layer is also in charge of receiving and delivering data between programs. This also includes headers, authentication data, and metadados in addition to the actual content.


This layer is essential in the job of confident communication and efficient communication between network devices such as computers, servers, and mobile devices that are connected in a network. The transport layer takes the data from the application layer and breaks it down into small pieces to make the trasport easily and efficiently to transmit. This layer manages the flow of data and devices, ensuring that the device that receives the data does not overflow. The transport layer also allows several devices to share a network connection. This is known as multiplexion.


The internet layer, also known as the network layer, is responsible for forwarding data packages from the origin to the destination using a network of computers independent of topology, one of the main functions of this layer is routing, the internet layer is responsible for choosing the most efficient way to forward the packages from the origin to the destination, this layer uses the IP management scheme to assign unique hosts from a network, This layer enables network segmentation into sub-networks, which aids in optimizing IP address allocation and making IP management easier.

Network Interface🔋

This layer is a hardware or software component that allows devices, such as a computer or a router, to communicate with one another. The network interface serves as a link between the device and the network infrastructure. The network interface encapsulates data in transmission-ready packages. This layer provides a device with an exclusive address, such as an IP address or a Mac address, which is used to identify devices in the network. This one regulates access to the midia broadcast, much like a cable or a WiFi radio. WiFi allows just one device to broadcast at a time.

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