It's an API specification which means in an interface that goes between a data source and a client to allow you and other developers to access it. It has a singular endpoint(url) that you send requests to, using GraphQL specific syntax. The GraphQL spec defines how that endpoint should interpret your request and ultimately resolve it(return data, or accomplish the requested task). Query requests will return information and Mutation requests will typically either change/create/update/delete information.
The other great benefit is that if you have multiple varying data sources you can use GraphQL to easily unify them under a singular endpoint. You just have to write the resolvers and connect them to the correct data sources.
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