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What is Diamond Problem?Why multiple inheritance in python not in Java ?

Diamond Problem:

The Diamond Problem is a scenario that arises in programming languages that support multiple inheritance. It occurs when a class inherits from two or more classes that have a common base class. If both of these intermediate classes override a method from the common base class, and a subclass attempts to call that method, ambiguity arises regarding which overridden method should be executed.


Consider the following class hierarchy:

  / \
 B   C
  \ /
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  • Class A has a method method().
  • Both classes B and C inherit from class A and override method().
  • Class D inherits from both classes B and C.

When you create an instance of D and call method(), there is ambiguity about whether the overridden method from class B or class C should be executed.

Why Python Supports Multiple Inheritance by MRO:

Python supports multiple inheritance, and it addresses the Diamond Problem using its Method Resolution Order (MRO) algorithm. Python uses C3 Linearization, a well-defined algorithm, to determine the order in which base classes are traversed when looking up methods. This algorithm establishes a clear method lookup order that helps avoid ambiguity.

Python's dynamic typing, duck typing, and flexibility make it possible to handle the complexities of multiple inheritance, and the MRO ensures a predictable behavior even in complex class hierarchies.

The provided code demonstrates the Diamond Problem in a multiple inheritance scenario. Let's break down the code and explain the output:

class A:
    def method(self):
        print("Method of class A")

class B(A):
    def method(self):
        print("Method of class B")

class C(A):
    def method(self):
        print("Method of class C")

class D(B, C):

obj = D()
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  1. class A defines a method method().

  2. class B inherits from class A and overrides the method() method with its own implementation.

  3. class C also inherits from class A and overrides the method() method with its own implementation.

  4. class D inherits from both class B and class C.

When you create an instance of D and call the method() method, the Diamond Problem arises:

  • Since D inherits from both B and C, there's ambiguity about which overridden method() should be executed.

  • Python uses the Method Resolution Order (MRO) to determine the order in which the base classes are considered during method lookup.

  • In this case, the MRO follows the order D -> B -> C -> A, meaning it will search for method() first in D, then B, then C, and finally A.

  • Because of this order, the method() implementation from class B is selected and executed.


Method of class B
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Explanation of Output:

When you create an instance of D and call its method() method, Python uses the MRO to look for an overridden method() in the base classes. In this case, method() is found first in class B during the MRO search, and that's why the output is "Method of class B".

The MRO order in this example is based on the order in which base classes are listed when defining class D (class D(B, C)). Since B is listed before C, its method() takes precedence in the MRO. This is why you see the output consistent with the MRO's method lookup order.

Why Java Doesn't Support Multiple Inheritance:

Java does not support multiple inheritance due to its design philosophy of simplicity and avoiding complex scenarios like the Diamond Problem. In Java, multiple inheritance can lead to ambiguity and challenges in method resolution. Therefore, Java chose to support single inheritance, where a class can inherit from only one parent class.

Solution for Multiple Inheritance in Java:

Java provides an alternative to multiple inheritance through interfaces. An interface is a collection of abstract methods that can be implemented by classes. A class can implement multiple interfaces, which provides a form of multiple inheritance for method declarations without implementation.

Example of Interfaces in Java:

interface Mammal {
    void feed();

interface Bird {
    void fly();

class Bat implements Mammal, Bird {
    public void feed() {
        System.out.println("Bat is feeding");

    public void fly() {
        System.out.println("Bat is flying");

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Bat bat = new Bat();
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In this Java example, the Bat class implements both Mammal and Bird interfaces, allowing it to have multiple sources of behavior while avoiding the complexities and ambiguity of multiple inheritance.

In summary, while Python supports multiple inheritance through MRO, Java avoids it due to simplicity and provides multiple inheritance-like behavior through interfaces.

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