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Fabrizio Bagalà
Fabrizio Bagalà

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Garbage Collector in .NET

The .NET Garbage Collector (GC) is one of the most essential components of the framework. It automatically manages memory, ensuring that resources are correctly disposed of when no longer needed, thereby mitigating the risk of memory errors. Although it operates in the background, understanding how it works is useful for developers in optimizing application performance and resolving memory-related issues.

How it works

At its core, the GC operates on the principle of automatic memory management, which means it is responsible for both the allocation and deallocation of memory for .NET applications. It takes care of disposing of objects that are no longer used by the application, thereby freeing up valuable memory space.

It uses a reference tracking algorithm to determine which objects can be disposed of. Any object not referenced by another running object is deemed "unreachable" and is subsequently marked for collection.

The GC process is divided into three phases:

  1. Marking: In this phase, it identifies all objects in memory that are still reachable, i.e., in use.
  2. Removal: It removes the unreachable objects identified in the marking phase.
  3. Compaction: This phase reduces memory fragmentation as the GC moves the remaining objects to occupy contiguous space.


The GC employs a generational model to improve performance. The model is based on the following considerations:

  • Memory compaction for a part of the managed heap is faster than for the entire managed heap.
  • Most recent objects typically have a shorter lifespan, while older ones have a longer lifespan.
  • More recent objects tend to be related and are accessed by the application at the same time.

Based on these factors, the GC categorizes objects in memory into three generations: 0, 1, and 2.

Generation 0 is the youngest, it contains short-lived objects like temporary variables. Garbage collection occurs most frequently in this generation. When Generation 0 gets filled, the GC performs a collection to free up space, usually reclaiming enough memory to allow the application to continue creating new objects.

Generation 1 serves as a buffer between short-lived and long-lived objects. After a Generation 0 collection, the GC compacts the memory for reachable objects and promotes them to Generation 1. This generation essentially serves as a 'second chance' for objects before they are promoted to Generation 2.

Generation 2 contains long-lived objects, like static data in a server application that remain active for the duration of the process. Generation 2 collections, also known as full garbage collections, include objects from all generations and therefore involve the entire managed heap.

Large objects go into the Large Object Heap (LOH), sometimes referred to as Generation 3. It's a physical generation that is logically collected as part of Generation 2.


The GC offers numerous advantages:

  • Developer relief: It frees developers from the duty of manually releasing memory, a task often complicated and error-prone.
  • Efficient allocation: It allocates objects in the managed heap efficiently, reducing memory fragmentation and making more efficient use of system resources.
  • Unused object recovery: It recovers unused objects, wipes their memory, and keeps the memory available for future allocations. Managed objects automatically get clean content at the beginning, so constructors don't have to initialize every data field.
  • Memory safety: It ensures memory safety by making sure that an object cannot use for itself the memory allocated for another object. This eliminates a host of potential bugs and security issues.

Execution conditions

A Garbage Collection operation is carried out when one or more of the following conditions occur:

  • System physical memory shortage: The operating system or the host signals a reduced memory condition.
  • Excessive memory usage by objects allocated in the managed heap: When the memory used surpasses a certain threshold, which is continuously adjusted during the process execution, a Garbage Collection operation is initiated.
  • Call to the GC.Collect method: Although it is not necessary in almost all cases (since the GC operates continuously), this method can be called primarily in exceptional situations or for testing purposes.


Understanding the workings of the Garbage Collector, the importance of its generational approach, the benefits it offers, and the conditions that trigger a Garbage Collection operation allows developers to write more efficient code and competently address performance issues related to memory.


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