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Dom (dcode)
Dom (dcode)

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Building a Single Page App without frameworks πŸ”₯

In today's post we'll be building a Single Page Application using only vanilla JavaScript - this means we don't need to use any frameworks!

Frameworks are great, and in many cases you'd probably want to use one, but for those smaller projects, or if you'd just like more control, doing it yourself from scratch could be a viable option πŸ‘€

What are we going to be creating?

This will be a fairly simple Single Page Application which features a navigation bar and a "view" section on the right side that'll change as the navigation items are clicked on.

GIF of Single Page App

Video Tutorial

First up, as usual, if you'd prefer to see this tutorial in video form, feel free to check it out below.

Follow along with the source code

I recommend cloning the repository or simply viewing the source code while doing this tutorial.

Creating the Web Server

We'll be using Express for our web server, so lets start by installing the dependencies and creating our directory structure.

npm init -y
npm i express
mkdir -p frontend/static

Next, we can create a server.js file and include the following.

const express = require("express");
const path = require("path");

const app = express();

/* Ensure any requests prefixed with /static will serve our "frontend/static" directory */
app.use("/static", express.static(path.resolve(__dirname, "frontend", "static")));

/* Redirect all routes to our (soon to exist) "index.html" file */
app.get("/*", (req, res) => {
    res.sendFile(path.resolve("frontend", "index.html"));

app.listen(process.env.PORT || 3000, () => console.log("Server running..."));

After this, create an index.html file within the frontend directory and start up your server:

node server.js

Navigating to http://localhost:3000 should now display your HTML file.

Writing the HTML

For the markup within index.html, we can include:

  • our soon-to-exist CSS stylesheet
  • our soon-to-exist JavaScript module
  • a navigation menu
  • an app container
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Single Page App (Vanilla JS)</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/index.css">
    <nav class="nav">
        <a href="/" class="nav__link" data-link>Dashboard</a>
        <a href="/posts" class="nav__link" data-link>Posts</a>
        <a href="/settings" class="nav__link" data-link>Settings</a>
    <div id="app"></div>
    <script type="module" src="/static/js/index.js"></script>

Note: the data-link attributes on our <a> tags - any links marked with this attribute will use the History API to enable changes to the view (#app) without a page refresh. We'll learn more about this shortly.

Also note: the #app div is used as the container for each view (Dashboard, Posts etc.) which we'll be learning more about a bit later on.

Adding the CSS

We may as well get the CSS over and done with so we have something pretty to look at - let's make a new file within frontend/static named main.css.

body {
    --nav-width: 200px;
    margin: 0 0 0 var(--nav-width);
    font-family: 'Quicksand', sans-serif;
    font-size: 18px;

/* Creates a full-height, left-mounted navigation menu */
.nav {
    position: fixed;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: var(--nav-width);
    height: 100vh;
    background: #222222;

/* Making these look fantastic */
.nav__link {
    display: block;
    padding: 12px 18px;
    text-decoration: none;
    color: #eeeeee;
    font-weight: 500;

.nav__link:hover {
    background: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.05);

#app {
    margin: 2em;
    line-height: 1.5;
    font-weight: 500;

/* The 'dcode' green always needs to make an appearance */
a {
    color: #009579;

As the CSS isn't the main focus of this tutorial, I'm not going to go into detail on what those styles do - plus, most are quite self explanatory 😁

Moving onto the JavaScript

Let's create a new file within static/js named index.js. This will be the main entry point for the client-side JavaScript and will contain the code for the router.

Supporting client-side URL parameters

First things first, we need to write a function that will help with client-side URL parameters. For example, if I want to define a route for /posts/:id, I want to be able to access the Post ID within my code.

As we'll be matching with regular expressions, let's write a function that will convert our /posts/:id route into a regular expression pattern:

const pathToRegex = path => new RegExp("^" + path.replace(/\//g, "\\/").replace(/:\w+/g, "(.+)") + "$");

Now, calling pathToRegex("/posts/:id") will give us /^\/posts\/(.+)$/. We can now use the capture group to grab the Post ID value in the router.

Writing the router

Let's create another function called router - this one will be called on page load, when clicking on links and when navigation changes.

const router = async () => {
    const routes = [
        { path: "/" },
        { path: "/posts" },
        { path: "/posts/:id" },
        { path: "/settings" }

Very shortly, we'll be including a reference to a "view", in the form of a JavaScript class, to each route.

For now though, let's write some code which will match a route with the current URL path.

const potentialMatches = => {
    return {
        result: location.pathname.match(pathToRegex(route.path))

As you can see, we're simply providing a map function for each route, and returning an extra field called result - this will contain the regular expression result when matching location.pathname with our route.

Next, let's figure out which one of routes matched, and provide a default (not found) route if none of them matched.

let match = potentialMatches.find(potentialMatch => potentialMatch.result !== null);

/* Route not found - return first route OR a specific "not-found" route */
if (!match) {
    match = {
        route: routes[0],
        result: [location.pathname]

As you can see, we're simply finding the first route that had a regular expression result.

If none are found, we're just "mocking" the first route. Feel free to add your own "not-found" route here.

Lastly, we can log out the matched route. Shortly, we'll be adding some content within #app based on the matched route.


Tying it all together

Before we continue creating the views and finishing up on our router, we should write some code which will tie all this together.

Let's start by defining a function that uses the History API to navigate to a given path.

const navigateTo = url => {
    history.pushState(null, null, url);

Next, we can enable all links with the data-link attribute to make use of this function. Also, we can run the router on document load.

document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", () => {
    document.body.addEventListener("click", e => {
        if ("[data-link]")) {

    /* Document has loaded -  run the router! */

We'll also want to run the router when the user navigates with the back and forward buttons.

window.addEventListener("popstate", router);

With all this complete, you should now be able to hop inside the browser and try clicking on one of the navigation links.

Upon clicking on the links, notice how the URL changes based on each link without a page refresh. Also, check the console for your match - it should all be there 😁

Preview of matching with log

Parsing the client-side URL parameters

Before moving onto writing the code for each of our views, we need a way to parse the client-side URL parameters. Let's define a function to do so.

const getParams = match => {
    const values = match.result.slice(1);
    const keys = Array.from(match.route.path.matchAll(/:(\w+)/g)).map(result => result[1]);

    return Object.fromEntries(, i) => {
        return [key, values[i]];

This function will take in a "match" - the same one we found via potentialMatches and the find method above.

Once it's got a match, it will take all of the capture group matches, from index 1 to the end. In the case of /posts/:id/:anotherParam and /posts/2/dcode, the value of values will be ["2", "dcode"].

In terms of keys, this will use a regular expression to grab each identifier prefixed with a : in our path. So, it will take /posts/:id/:anotherParam and give us ["id", "anotherParam"].

Lastly, we take the result of both values and keys, and stick them together with Object.entries which will give us a returned value of something like

    "id": "2",
    "anotherParam": "dcode"

We can now move onto writing the code for each view - after that though, we can make use of the getParams within the router.

Writing the views

Each "view" is going to be represented by a JavaScript class within frontend/static/js/views. We can first define an abstract class which each view will extend.

// frontend/static/js/views/AbstractView.js
export default class {
    constructor(params) {
        this.params = params;

    setTitle(title) {
        document.title = title;

    async getHtml() {
        return "";

This is quite straight forward - we're going to store the parameters for each view as an instance property, and provide a convenience method for setting the page title.

Most notably though, we have the async getHtml method - this one is going to be implemented by each view, and will return the HTML for them.

Let's write the code for the Dashboard view.

// frontend/static/js/views/Dashboard.js
import AbstractView from "./AbstractView.js";

export default class extends AbstractView {
    constructor(params) {

    async getHtml() {
        return `
            <h1>Welcome back, Dom</h1>
            <p>Hi there, this is your Dashboard.</p>
                <a href="/posts" data-link>View recent posts</a>.

As you can see, we're simply extended the AbstractView and calling a method to set the page title. You can also find the HTML for the Dashboard returned via getHtml.

Feel free to create as many views as you need.

Note: If your route had parameters, you can reference them within the views with this.params.your-param-here, for example, if you had a ViewPost view, get the Post ID by doing

Going back to the router

Now that we've got our views, let's make some slight adjustments to the index.js file.

Let's import our views.

import Dashboard from "./views/Dashboard.js";
import Posts from "./views/Posts.js";
import PostView from "./views/PostView.js";
import Settings from "./views/Settings.js";

Now, we can reference them in the routes within the router function.

const routes = [
    { path: "/", view: Dashboard },
    { path: "/posts", view: Posts },
    { path: "/posts/:id", view: PostView },
    { path: "/settings", view: Settings }

Lastly, we can make a new instance of the matched view and set the HTML of the #app container to be the HTML provided by the view.

const view = new match.route.view(getParams(match));
document.querySelector("#app").innerHTML = await view.getHtml();

Note: We use a await here as the getHtml function may need to perform a request for data or HTML from the server-side.

And that's it! You should have a fully functional Single Page Application. Please provide any suggestions below 😁

Discussion (22)

fagnerbrack profile image
Fagner Brack • Edited on

Basically if you remove the javascript code and get the html fragment from the server using the "get html" function then everything still works.

Progressive enhancement at its best.

This is a proof that you don't need a front end framework to build an spa that can track states through the Url using the history API. No state on client side therefore no need for a "setState all the things".

Great post, rare to see such quality around the Web these days.

catinhocr profile image

is that a node.js function? cant find any reference to it after a couple google hits

fagnerbrack profile image
Fagner Brack • Edited on

It's a reference to the code examples in the original post. There's a custom "getHtml()" function there.

michaelcurrin profile image
Michael Currin • Edited on

Thanks for sharing!

I enjoyed going through the repo. I forked it and updated how the routes are handled so it works on GH Pages πŸš€

Also I added instructions for serving as a static site without Express.

frarus profile image

Dear author, why you didn't use the hash part of the URL with the hashchange event to navigate around the app?
I've checked around 5 similar articles and all of them are recommending to use hash. It's much simpler and convenient.

metalmikester profile image
Michel Renaud

I'm interested in this. Do you have some links you can share?

bassforce86 profile image
James King • Edited on

Just a side note: Express is itself, a framework.

I don't mean this as an inflammatory statement, just for those that may not know.

michaelcurrin profile image
Michael Currin

Express is more of a dev dependency here for local dev convenience and can be swapped out for other approaches, including VS Code Live Server or Python builtin HTTP server.

Or http-server for NPM which can be installed globally and run in the project root.

michaelcurrin profile image
Michael Currin

BTW In production you would use Nginx to serve your static assets (HTML and JS). Or upload them to GitHub Pages and let that serve it for you. No NPM server needed.

Using Express in production is suitable if you want to build an API or maybe do frontend templating (like Python Flask does). That you can make your content dynamic like with get data from a database. Instagram is a single application which does something like this.

dcodeyt profile image
Dom (dcode) Author

True - more accurately I probably should have mentioned "front-end" framework

seymamuratoglu profile image

Hi I am new with the javascript node etc. and I have a big problem :( How can I add script event to following HTML page
async getHtml() {
<h1>Welcome back, Dom</h1>
<p>Hi there, this is your Dashboard.</p>
<a href="/posts" data-link>View recent posts</a>.

I am trying to create forms in each page and I have to add script events in order to collect data and display current time on some forms etc. Thanks :)

wewill profile image

Dear dom,

Thank you for your great article. I'm looking for a proper way to get totally ride of any server side framework. Imagine a project you cannot install anything in server. There is only an API to provide content.
Is there a way, to simply route to html pages and call some js to fill them ( statics, content .. ) ? What will be "bad" to do like this ?

Best regards, Wil

gilbertoalbino profile image
Gilberto Albino • Edited on

You can't publish any web project without a webserver. Node.js is "also" a webserver, and Express is just used to simplify its implementation here. You could publish this project pointing it directly to index.html using Apache, Ngnix or any other webserver. The problem will always be that you need to say to the webserver that the Url is parsed by the JS in the browser and not by itself (webserver), since you will be granted with a terrible 404 not found error page. That said, having any backend programming language routing to index.html is always the best choice.

325designs profile image
Drew Stephens

Single Page App without frameworks, but you're using React which is a framework. I also wouldn't call it vanilaa javascript either, but that's just me

crtdaniele profile image
Daniele Carta

React is not a framework, but it is a library.
In this article, I don't see React.

artydev profile image

Hello Drew,

Can you point me where you see React stuff in it ?

adam_cyclones profile image
Adam Crockett

Sombody might find this useful for a frame-workless SPA. Please note I wrote it.

GitHub logo adam-cyclones / reactive-css-properties

Set css custom properties and react to changes in realtime from JavaScript

Reactive css logo

Reactive CSS Properties

A tiny library to supercharge your styling workflow. With Reactive CSS Properties (re.css) you can set css custom properties and react to changes in realtime from JavaScript

Website - Report a bug - Supported frameworks

Table of contents

The case for re.css

You can think of modern JavaScript having two main responsibilities, updating business logic and updating styling, The trouble with the latter is that this adds extra overhead and new problems to overcome, re.css sets out that it is css's responsibility to update styling and JavaScript should…

laoshaw profile image
laoshaw is a simple router for self-made SPA

dataserver017 profile image

If I click on Posts, then I want to load a JS script file (click Handler). How I make it?

ravgeetdhillon profile image
Ravgeet Dhillon

How do I write JS for each route and then inject it to the app when the route is loaded?