There is in fact a system very similar to what you describe above. Developed originally in 2013 and released as open source in 2015. It was originally developed as a workflow and process orchestration system, but over the last 3 years it has been utilized at a major fortune 500 company for analytics and integration. There is a ancient version of it in a public repo under the GPL, but since then I've done substantial changes to it. Sadly this version is yet to be released back to the public repo. I'm hopeful that we will get this version released and made available for others to use it. It is Java however, not Node. Exposes REST and GraphQL interfaces for clients.
Yeah, the idea is not new. The implementation which I mentioned in post was done in 2012 and since then its core structure was used as a platform for other systems in one large US bank. And yes, it's also Java. The core was built on top of Infinispan with custom persistence layer and custom queues built on top of Infinispan.
For some time I'm working on open source framework dedicated to proposed architecture, but progress is rather slow. For now it's more like a deep research on convenient ways to write apps with such design.
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