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Cesare Ferrari
Cesare Ferrari

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Triangle of asterisks

Using a loop to print to the console in Javascript

We have seen how to use a Javascript for loop to make calculations in how to calculate a factorial of an integer.

for loops can be used to print out characters to the console, as well.
Here I am describing a common problem of printing a triangle of asterisks given an input number that specifies the size of the triangle.
For example, if the given number is 4, we should print out a triangle like this:


Four rows and four columns of asterisks.
The size of the triangle is governed by the integer passed in as the argument.

We start by writing down our requirements:

  • We have an unknown integer as an input.
  • The integer is greater than zero.
  • The output should be asterisks printed out to the console.
  • We should print out a number of rows that's equal to the argument.
  • The fist row will have 1 asterisk.
  • For each subsequent row we have 1 asterisk more than the row that came before it.
  • The last row has the same number of asterisks as the argument.

We know that if we want to handle a series of things recursively we can use a for loop.
To get our feet wet, let's start by defining a function that prints out as many asterisks as the input number:

const triangle = n => {
  for (let i = 1; i <= n; i++) {

We could print out stuff using console.log but console.log adds a return character at the end of its output, which may mess things up for us in this case, so I am using process.stdout.write, which writes to standard out but doesn't add any extra characters.

As you can see, we are just iterating from 1 to n (n being the argument passed to our function) and for each iteration we print out *.
At the end of the loop, we print out a return character to separate the console prompt from our printout.
If we call our function like this:


we get this result:


It's a start. Now, how do we print the columns?

Printing the columns

It looks like a second loop, nested inside the first loop, would help.
This would be our structure in pseudocode:

for ( 1 to n ) {   // outer iteration

  for ( 1 to n ) {  // inner iteration
    // print `*` 

  // print new line


This code says:

  • Start outer iteration, counter is 1
  • Start inner iteration, counter is 1
  • Print *
  • Print new line
  • Go back to outer iteration, now the counter is 2
  • Run the inner iteration 2 times
  • Inner iteration prints out * 2 times, for a total of **
  • Print new line
  • Go back to outer iteration, now the counter is 3
  • Inner iteration prints out * 3 times, for a total of ***
  • ... and so on until we reach n
  • Then stop and exit the function.

Now, let's replace our pseudo code with real code, setting up the variables for the for loop.
The inner loop uses its own set of variables, as you can see:

const triangle = n => {

  for (let i = 1; i <= n; i++) {

    for (let j = 1; j <= i; j++) {


Now, if we call this code with:


we get the result we want:


In this article we have seen how to use a nested loop to print out random characters to the console.
We'll talk more about Javascript iterations in future articles.

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