The performance of a quantum information processing protocol is ultimately judged by distinguishability measures that quantify how distinguishable the actual result of the protocol is from the ideal case. The most prominent distinguishability measures are those based on the fidelity and trace distance, due to their physical interpretations. In this paper, we propose and review several algorithms for estimating distinguishability measures based on trace distance and fidelity, and we evaluate their performance using simulators of quantum computers. The algorithms can be used for distinguishing quantum states, channels, and strategies (the last also known in the literature as "quantum combs"). The fidelity-based algorithms offer novel physical interpretations of these distinguishability measures in terms of the maximum probability with which a single prover (or competing provers) can convince a verifier to accept the outcome of an associated computation. We simulate these algorithms by using a variational approach with parameterized quantum circuits and find that they converge well for the examples that we consider.

1 aAgarwal, Rochisha1 aRethinasamy, Soorya1 aSharma, Kunal1 aWilde, Mark, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2108.08406