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How does Git know if you have uncommitted changes in the working tree? (Part 1)

captainsafia profile image Safia Abdalla ・4 min read

In one of my last blog posts, I started digging into how git-status works. I ended up going into a little bit of a rabbit hole. As it turns out, the git-status command intersects with the Git differ and the way that state about the current working tree is managed. I ended up setting aside two specific questions to answer in my blog post.

  • How does Git execute diffs and how does it manage diffed state?
  • How does Git manage the state of the working tree?

In my last blog post, I answered the second question pretty fully. In this blog post, I’d like to tackle the first question. So let’s get right into it!

As a remainder, the relevant chunk of code that I am looking into is in the portion of the code base that is responsible for checking whether or not there are currently uncommitted changes in a repository. The function looks something like this.

int has_uncommitted_changes(int ignore_submodules)
{
    struct rev_info rev_info;
    int result;

    if (is_cache_unborn())
        return 0;

    init_revisions(&rev_info, NULL);
    if (ignore_submodules)
        rev_info.diffopt.flags.ignore_submodules = 1;
    rev_info.diffopt.flags.quick = 1;
    add_head_to_pending(&rev_info);
    diff_setup_done(&rev_info.diffopt);
    result = run_diff_index(&rev_info, 1);
    return diff_result_code(&rev_info.diffopt, result);
}

Sidebar: I dunno why I said “something like this.” The above is the exact definition of the function per the pinned version of the code base I’ve been reading. Ya get what I mean…

I get the send that this is gonna end up being one of those code reads that I leave with more questions than answers. As I’ve said many times before, such is life.

The first thing I wanted to dig into is the rev_info struct that is used throughout the code snippet above. So what does the definition of the rev_info struct look like. Well, let me tell you, it’s got a whole lot going on. Here’s a link to the definition for those who are brave.

If I included the code for the rev_info struct, it would be far too much. Instead, I’ll try my best to summarize the parts of hte struct that are used in the code snippet above.

The diffopt variable represents a diff_options structure. The diff_options struct which includes options related to the generation of the diff between files.

The ignore_submodules flag dicates whether or not changes in submodules should be considered.

It took a while to figure out what the quick flag did. I’m not totally sure but from reading how the flag is used throughout the codebase, I figure that it is used in the same way that the --brief flag works for the diff command in Unix. In sum, it only shows output when files differ. The line of code that hinted me towards this is here. In sum, when the quick flag is set to true the REV_LIST_QUIET flag is toggled.

OK. I hope that made sense. It’s really hard to convey what these structs represent because it involves reading chunks of code across disparate places and then trying to piece together a sense of what might be going on. It’s a lot like solving a puzzle. And some things don’t translate well unless you’ve had the experience of solving the puzzle.

Anyways, the next thing that I wanted look into is the init_revisions function. The name is a big hint as to what the function does. It initializes the rev_info struct with some default configurations. There’s also some other business going on with init_grep_defaults, but I’ll into that at some other point. Stay focused, Safia!

The next function to look into is the add_head_to_pending function. This function is one of those functions with a few lines of code but a lot going on underneath.

void add_head_to_pending(struct rev_info *revs)
{
    struct object_id oid;
    struct object *obj;
    if (get_oid("HEAD", &oid))
        return;
    obj = parse_object(&oid);
    if (!obj)
        return;
    add_pending_object(revs, obj, "HEAD");
}

Alright! So it looks like we are messing around with objects here. If you’ve been around this blog for a while, I dived into this a little bit in the first blog post where I explored the contents of the Git directory.

I think this is a good point to stop and set aside some questions to guide future explorations. Some things I wanna figure out are:

  • What does init_grep_defaults do?
  • What is an object from a filesystem perspective and from a data structure perspective?
  • What does it mean to add an object to HEAD?
  • Why is the rev_info struct so damn dense?

That being said, I thought it was pretty good that I clarified what rev_info was in the context of Git. Like I said before, I knew I was gonna leave this with more questions than answers.

Until next time! I gotta go to bed…

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