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Jaira Encio for AWS Community ASEAN

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Creating an API that runs Selenium via AWS Lambda

Being an automation tester, my job is to automate everything. As I was running my test script via terminal I realised that I’m the only who can execute the scripts I made. What if someone wants to run it? like the Devs, Project Manager, etc. It would be a tedious task to clone my repo, install libraries, and run the script. So I decided that maybe I can store my test script inside a serverless machine and make it accessible via API request.

I experimented with various AWS resources such as creating my own lambda function, checking features of API gateway, Codepipeline, etc. After several attempts, I was finally able to run my script inside. And then I just researched how to access my lambda via API.

This will result in higher production and time savings. Engineers may focus on vital work because automated testing does not require human interaction. This is like a portable testing device that anyone could execute. With fast test execution, developers get testing reports in an instant, so whenever a failure occurs, they will react to it quickly. Test automation will make it easier to update programs quickly. As a result, automated testing leads to increased team responsiveness, improved user experience, and increased customer satisfaction.

Overview

  1. Create 2 Lambda layers that has selenium and chromedriver libraries
  2. Include created lambda layers in serverless.yml of lambda then deploy

Creating Selenium Lambda Layer

Place libraries in python/lib/python3.6/site-packages/ to include them in a layer.

Download Selenium to layer directory

pip3.6 install -t selenium/python/lib/python3.6/site-packages selenium==3.8.0
cd selenium
zip -r python.zip python/
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Once finished, Create lambda layer then upload zip file

1. Go to AWS Console Lambda/Layers
2. Click Create Layer
3. Input the following in the layer configuration

Name: selenium
Description: Selenium layer
Upload zip file created: python.zip
Compatible runtimes: Python 3.6
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selenium-layer

4. Click Create

Note: You can user whatever version you prefer, you just need to select compatible runtime when uploading your package

 Creating Chromedriver Lambda layer

Download chrome driver

mkdir -p chromedriver
cd chromedriver
curl -SL https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/2.37/chromedriver_linux64.zip > chromedriver.zip
unzip chromedriver.zip
rm chromedriver.zip
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Download chrome binary

curl -SL https://github.com/adieuadieu/serverless-chrome/releases/download/v1.0.0-41/stable-headless-chromium-amazonlinux-2017-03.zip > headless-chromium.zip
unzip headless-chromium.zip
rm headless-chromium.zip
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Compress driver and binary

ls
chromedriver headless-chromium
zip -r chromedriver.zip chromedriver headless-chromium
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Once finished, Create lambda layer then upload zip file

1. Go to AWS Console Lambda/Layers
2. Click Create Layer
3. Input the following in the layer configuration

Name: chromedriver
Description: chrome driver and binary layer
Upload zip file created: chromedriver.zip
Compatible runtimes: Python 3.6
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chrome-layer

4. Click Create

 Creating Lambda Function

To ensure that your function code has access to libraries included in layers, Lambda runtimes include paths in the '/opt' directory.

 File Structure

── /lambda/            # lambda function
  ├── /handler.py      # source code of lambda function 
  └── /serverless.yaml # serverless config
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 Code

Copy the code below to /lambda/handler.py

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options

def main(event, context):
    options = Options()
    options.binary_location = '/opt/headless-chromium'
    options.add_argument('--headless')
    options.add_argument('--no-sandbox')
    options.add_argument('--single-process')
    options.add_argument('--disable-dev-shm-usage')

    driver = webdriver.Chrome('/opt/chromedriver',chrome_options=options)
    driver.get('https://www.google.com/')

    driver.close();
    driver.quit();

    response = {
        "statusCode": 200,
        "body": "Selenium Headless Chrome Initialized"
    }

    return response
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Copy the code below to /lambda/serverless.yaml.

service: selenium-lambda

provider:
  name: aws
  runtime: python3.6
  region: ap-southeast-2
  timeout: 900

functions:
  main:
    memorySize: 1000
    handler: handler.main
    events:
      - http:
          path: test
          method: get

    layers:
      - arn:aws:lambda:ap-southeast-2:{}:layer:chromedriver:2
      - arn:aws:lambda:ap-southeast-2:{}:layer:selenium:2

resources:
  Resources:
    ApiGatewayRestApi:
      Properties:
        BinaryMediaTypes:
          - "*/*"
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 Deploy Lambda Function

Go to /lambda directory

$ sls deploy
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 Output

Serverless: Stack update finished...
Service Information
service: selenium-lambda
stage: dev
region: ap-southeast-2
stack: selenium-lambda-dev
api keys:
  None
endpoints:
  GET - https://{name}.execute-api.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/dev/test
functions:
  main: selenium-lambda-dev-main
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output

You should get same response as below when accessing API

{
"statusCode": 200,
"body": "Selenium Headless Chrome Initialized"
}
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This deployment automatically creates cloudformation stack and s3 bucket.

Cloudformation stack

S3

Deprecation note:

Since python3.6 has been deprecated, you can try using the ff packages compatible with 3.9. note that if this exceeds lambda function zip file, you can try using docker image or uploading to s3 instead.

$ python3.9 -m pip install -t python/lib/python3.9/site-packages selenium==4.5.0
$ cd selenium
$ zip -r python.zip python/
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Name: selenium
Description: Selenium layer
Upload zip file created: python.zip
Compatible runtimes: Python 3.9

$ mkdir -p chromedriver
$ cd chromedriver
$ curl -SL https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/107.0.5304.62/chromedriver_linux64.zip > chromedriver.zip
$ unzip chromedriver.zip
$ rm chromedriver.zip
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$ curl -SL https://github.com/adieuadieu/serverless-chrome/releases/download/v1.0.0-57/stable-headless-chromium-amazonlinux-2.zip > headless-chromium.zip
$ unzip headless-chromium.zip
$ rm headless-chromium.zip
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References for new releases:
chromedriver release
https://chromedriver.chromium.org/downloads

serverless-chrome release
https://github.com/adieuadieu/serverless-chrome/releases

Checkout Achim's comment on how he used 3.9 using dockerimage
https://dev.to/achimgrolimund/comment/22d99

Jaira Encio Linkedin

Top comments (40)

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prenitwankhede profile image
prenit-wankhede

Thanks a ton brother for simple yet elegant walk through.
I have been trying so many tutorials and ways to get it to work but no luck.

With selenium version, chromedriver version and headless-chrome version as mentioned in the post, finally got it working. Thanks a bunch !

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awolad profile image
Awolad Hossain

@jairaencio It's working great. But I can't use the selenium-stealth plugin. Getting an error. Message: unknown error: Chrome failed to start: exited abnormally\n (Driver info: .....

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options
from selenium_stealth import stealth

def lambda_handler(event, context):
    options = Options()
    options.binary_location = '/opt/headless-chromium'    
    options.add_argument("start-maximized")
    options.add_experimental_option("excludeSwitches", ["enable-automation"])
    options.add_experimental_option('useAutomationExtension', False)

    driver = webdriver.Chrome('/opt/chromedriver',chrome_options=options)

    stealth(driver,
        languages=["en-US", "en"],
        vendor="Google Inc.",
        platform="Win32",
        webgl_vendor="Intel Inc.",
        renderer="Intel Iris OpenGL Engine",
        fix_hairline=True,
        )

    driver.get('https://quizlet.com/446134722/it-management-flash-cards/')

    driver.close();
    driver.quit();

    response = {
        "statusCode": 200,
        "body": "Selenium Headless Chrome Initialized"
    }

    return response
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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

Hi @awolad I think you need to include the stealth library package in your lambda layer. Notice in my tutorial I have 2 different lambda layers for my selenium and chromedriver package. You can create another lambda layer or just simply include it in the 2 layers

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awolad profile image
Awolad Hossain

@jairaencio Yes, I've added the stealth library package in the selenium lambda layer. There is no import error.

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

Great! Always happy to help :)

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awolad profile image
Awolad Hossain

@jairaencio Sorry, It's not solved yet. I mean the error is not related to the import the stealth package issue. Because the package is already in my lambda layer. The driver fails to load when the stealth package is used.

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author • Edited on

does the error only occur when you add selenium-stealth library? Upon checking I noticed that others are experiencing issue in their local machines just by using stealth. You could try adding options.add_argument("--disable-blink-features=AutomationControlled") . Then try if it works both on your local and lambda.

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awolad profile image
Awolad Hossain

Yes.

With the selenium-stealth default options like following:

options = Options()
options.binary_location = '/opt/headless-chromium'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_argument("start-maximized")
# options.add_argument("--headless")
options.add_experimental_option("excludeSwitches", ["enable-automation"])
options.add_experimental_option('useAutomationExtension', False)

driver = webdriver.Chrome('/opt/chromedriver', chrome_options=options)

stealth(driver,
        languages=["en-US", "en"],
        vendor="Google Inc.",
        platform="Win32",
        webgl_vendor="Intel Inc.",
        renderer="Intel Iris OpenGL Engine",
        fix_hairline=True,
        )
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I'm getting error: Message: unknown error: Chrome failed to start: exited abnormally\n (Driver info: .....

By using this post options like following:

options = Options()
options.binary_location = '/opt/headless-chromium'
options.add_argument('--headless')
options.add_argument('--no-sandbox')
options.add_argument('--single-process')
options.add_argument('--disable-dev-shm-usage')

driver = webdriver.Chrome('/opt/chromedriver', chrome_options=options)

stealth(driver,
     languages=["en-US", "en"],
     vendor="Google Inc.",
      platform="Win32",
      webgl_vendor="Intel Inc.",
      renderer="Intel Iris OpenGL Engine",
       fix_hairline=True,
)
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I'm getting error: "'WebDriver' object has no attribute 'execute_cdp_cmd'"

Thread Thread
 
jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

I'm seeing this article related to "execute_cdp_cmd" error. Apparently they used pip install --pre selenium to be able to execute CDP commands github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/iss...

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awolad profile image
Awolad Hossain

I also tried that but not working. I forgot to mention that. It would be helpful for us if you try with the selenium-stealth package and update this post. Because some websites we can't scrape without the selenium-stealth package. Thanks!

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da_shen_a7cf582bace0b4404 profile image
Da Shen

tested working.. good article. note that Python runtime has to be 3.6. It won't work otherwise.

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quibski profile image
quibski

Surely many Devs and QA will benefit from this. Hopefully a demo can be made/shown

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tchua profile image
tchua

+1 to this, a demo would be great!

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

uhm hahaha

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chris93007wq profile image
Christine John

I'm getting the following error -
selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException: Message: unknown error: cannot find Chrome binary
(Driver info: chromedriver=2.37.544315(730aa6a5fdba159ac9f4c1e8cbc59bf1b5ce12b7),platform=Linux 4.14.255-276-224.499.amzn2.x86_64 x86_64)

Could someone help me please? :(

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awspipe profile image
awspipe

Hi I am new to AWS lambda, so kindly apologize for any obvious questions...
I was able to create the 2 layers mentioned by you, for python and chromium.
But I have no idea how can I run serverless.yaml...
You've mentioned "sls deploy", but I don't have linux to run this.

Any other alternative to run this? Thanks

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

I'm not a windows user but here is what I found codegrepper.com/code-examples/shel...

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chris93007wq profile image
Christine John
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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

Hi, this error would likely happen if the location for your chromedriver is incorrect. (lambda layer)

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achimgrolimund profile image
Achim Grolimund • Edited on

Hey @jairaencio
Hello everyone, thanks for the guide. but it seems to me that this method no longer works without a Dockerimage.

I keep getting the error:

{
  "errorMessage": "Message: Service /opt/chromedriver unexpectedly exited. Status code was: 127\n",
  "errorType": "WebDriverException",
  "requestId": "ef0d3b0d-ee3f-4822-ba11-9dd40920680b",
  "stackTrace": [
    "  File \"/var/task/app.py\", line 29, in main\n    driver = webdriver.Chrome(service=s, options=op)\n",
    "  File \"/opt/python/lib/python3.9/site-packages/selenium/webdriver/chrome/webdriver.py\", line 69, in __init__\n    super().__init__(DesiredCapabilities.CHROME['browserName'], \"goog\",\n",
    "  File \"/opt/python/lib/python3.9/site-packages/selenium/webdriver/chromium/webdriver.py\", line 89, in __init__\n    self.service.start()\n",
    "  File \"/opt/python/lib/python3.9/site-packages/selenium/webdriver/common/service.py\", line 98, in start\n    self.assert_process_still_running()\n",
    "  File \"/opt/python/lib/python3.9/site-packages/selenium/webdriver/common/service.py\", line 110, in assert_process_still_running\n    raise WebDriverException(\n"
  ]
}
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Python 3.9
Selenium 4.5.0
chromedriver 106.0.5249.61
headless-chromium v1.0.0-57

This is My Makefile to create all the stuff i need. At the end i do upload all what is inside the lambda Folder (Code + 2 Layers)

BOLD := \033[1m
NORMAL := \033[0m
GREEN := \033[1;32m

.DEFAULT_GOAL := help
HELP_TARGET_DEPTH ?= \#
.PHONY: help
help: # Show how to get started & what targets are available
    @printf "This is a list of all the make targets that you can run, e.g. $(BOLD)make dagger$(NORMAL) - or $(BOLD)m dagger$(NORMAL)\n\n"
    @awk -F':+ |$(HELP_TARGET_DEPTH)' '/^[0-9a-zA-Z._%-]+:+.+$(HELP_TARGET_DEPTH).+$$/ { printf "$(GREEN)%-20s\033[0m %s\n", $$1, $$3 }' $(MAKEFILE_LIST) | sort
    @echo


install: clean # Format all files (terraform fmt --recursive .)
    python3.9 -m pip install -t python/lib/python3.9/site-packages selenium==4.5.0 --upgrade
    python3.9 -m pip install -t python/lib/python3.9/site-packages wget --upgrade
    curl -SL https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/106.0.5249.61/chromedriver_linux64.zip > chromedriver.zip
    curl -SL https://github.com/adieuadieu/serverless-chrome/releases/download/v1.0.0-57/stable-headless-chromium-amazonlinux-2.zip > headless-chromium.zip
    mkdir -p lambda
    zip -9 -r lambda/python.zip python
    unzip chromedriver.zip
    unzip headless-chromium.zip
    zip -9 -r lambda/chromedriver.zip chromedriver headless-chromium
    rm -f chromedriver.zip headless-chromium.zip chromedriver headless-chromium

build: # Create all layers to upload to the Lambda Function
    zip -9 -r lambda/app.zip app.py

clean:
    rm -rf lambda python
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And here is a overview of my python script:

import re
import wget

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.service import Service
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
from selenium.webdriver.support.wait import WebDriverWait


def main(event, context):
    regex = r"[ \w-]+?(?=\.txt\.gz)"

    s = Service('/opt/chromedriver')
    op = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    op.binary_location = '/opt/headless-chromium'
    op.add_argument('--headless')
    op.add_argument('--no-sandbox')
    op.add_argument('--disable-dev-shm-usage')
    op.add_argument('--disable-gpu')
    op.add_argument('--disable-dev-tools')
    op.add_argument("--disable-extensions")
    op.add_argument('--no-zygote')
    op.add_argument('--single-process')
    op.add_argument('--enable-logging')
    op.add_argument('--log-level=0')
    op.add_argument("--disable-notifications")
    op.add_argument('--v=99')
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(service=s, options=op)

    driver.get(
        "https://xxxxxx")

    (.....)

    driver.close()

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Is there another way to run it directly in a lambda without a docker image?

Best Regards

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

Great take on this achin💪 I still havent gotten back on this but your method of using dockerimage is very useful for everyone as well 👏🏽

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sebifc profile image
sebifc

Hi! I tried to run it in a Lambda function and the execution keeps running until it get the 600 seconds timeout.
I had downloaded the chromium 93 driver and the headless chrome 93 as well.

I'm using the following code:

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options
from webdriver_manager.chrome import ChromeDriverManager
from selenium_stealth import stealth

def lambda_handler(event, context):
    options = Options()
    options.binary_location = '/opt/headless-chromium'
    options.add_argument("start-maximized")
    #options.add_experimental_option("excludeSwitches", ["enable-automation"])
    #options.add_experimental_option('useAutomationExtension', False)
    #options.add_argument("--disable-blink-features=AutomationControlled")
    #options.add_argument('--headless')
    options.add_argument('--no-sandbox')
    options.add_argument('--single-process')
    options.add_argument('--disable-dev-shm-usage')
    options.add_argument('--disable-notifications')
    options.add_argument("--enable-javascript")

    driver = webdriver.Chrome('/opt/chromedriver',chrome_options=options)

    stealth(driver,
        languages=["en-US", "en"],
        vendor="Google Inc.",
        platform="Win32",
        webgl_vendor="Intel Inc.",
        renderer="Intel Iris OpenGL Engine",
        fix_hairline=True,
        )

    driver.get('https://trends.google.com/trends/trendingsearches/daily?geo=US')

    driver.close();
    driver.quit();

    response = {
        "statusCode": 200,
        "body": "Selenium Headless Chrome Initialized"
    }

    return response
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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

I'm guessting that the timeout issue is caused by deployment package size. You would have to use container images solve it.

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shitalchinte profile image
shitalChinte

@jairaencio Great blog for helping QA engineers. Can you please guide on how can we make it compatible with other python versions. I tried with 3.9 and it fails with below error.
"errorMessage": "Unable to import module 'lambda_function': No module named 'selenium'",

Thanks in advance.

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

Hi, i just also recently noticed the deprecation update on lambda. Might have to change everything starting from drivers. Will try my best to update post.

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em__sia profile image
e

Naks! Great job! Screenshots will be helpful too. And a milk-tea will do. Thanks! Ahahahhahaha. :)

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ranzeyxc profile image
ranzey

Huge help! :)

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ivy07 profile image
Ivy ☕

Great help! Will definitely need more articles like this un the future.

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rolinj profile image
rolinj

Kudos Jai! Great tutorial indeed!
For reference, may you add as well some screenshots of the created cloudformation stack and s3 bucket on the output section? Thanks :D

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jairaencio profile image
Jaira Encio Author

Uploaded screenshots of cloudformation and s3 bucket. Thanks for the feedback :)

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raphael_jambalos profile image
Raphael Jambalos

The article is very helpful! It brings automation to the next level. By having running automated tests in a more automated way, developers will be empowered to make sure their code runs optimally.

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jlgarcia profile image
jltuts

Good job jai! Very helpful!

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lunchcodes profile image
LunchCodes

Exactly what I needed! Thank you!

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