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Farhan
Farhan

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Writing a simple in-memory key-value Database in Go

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Ever wondered how to write a database? I wrote a simple in-memory key-value store in Go, with Redis like commands. Hope this serves as a starting point for anyone interested in building a toy db.

I call mine, FlashDB.

TLDR:

GitHub logo arriqaaq / flashdb

FlashDB is an embeddable, in-memory key/value database in Go (with Redis like commands)

FlashDB

flashdb

FlashDB is a simple, in-memory, key/value store in pure Go It persists to disk, is ACID compliant, and uses locking for multiple readers and a single writer. It supports redis like operations for data structures like SET, SORTED SET, HASH and STRING.

Features

Architecture

FlashDB is made of composable libraries that can be used independently and are easy to understand. The idea is to bridge the learning for anyone new on how to build a simple ACID database.

Getting Started

Installing

To start using FlashDB, install Go and run go get:

$ go get -u
…
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FlashDB is a simple, in-memory, key/value store in pure Go.
It persists to disk, is ACID compliant, and uses locking for multiple
readers and a single writer. It supports redis like operations for
data structures like SET, SORTED SET, HASH and STRING.

Features

Architecture

FlashDB is made of composable libraries that can be used independently and are easy to understand. The idea is to bridge the
learning for anyone new on how to build a simple ACID database.

Getting Started

Installing

To start using FlashDB, install Go and run go get:

$ go get -u github.com/arriqaaq/flashdb
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This will retrieve the library.

Opening a database

The primary object in FlashDB is a DB. To open or create your
database, use the flashdb.New() function:

package main

import (
    "log"

    "github.com/arriqaaq/flashdb"
)

func main() {
    config := &flashdb.Config{Path:"/tmp", EvictionInterval: 10}
    db, err := flashdb.New(config)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal(err)
    }
    defer db.Close()

    ...
}
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It's also possible to open a database that does not persist to disk by keeping the path in the config empty.

config := &flashdb.Config{Path:"", EvictionInterval: 10}
flashdb.New(config)
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Transactions

All reads and writes must be performed from inside a transaction. FlashDB can have one write transaction opened at a time, but can have many concurrent read transactions. Each transaction maintains a stable view of the database. In other words, once a transaction has begun, the data for that transaction cannot be changed by other transactions.

When a transaction fails, it will roll back, and revert all changes that occurred to the database during that transaction. When a read/write transaction succeeds all changes are persisted to disk.

Read-only Transactions

A read-only transaction should be used when you don't need to make changes to the data. The advantage of a read-only transaction is that there can be many running concurrently.

err := db.View(func(tx *flashdb.Tx) error {
    ...
    return nil
})
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Read/write Transactions

A read/write transaction is used when you need to make changes to your data. There can only be one read/write transaction running at a time. So make sure you close it as soon as you are done with it.

err := db.Update(func(tx *flashdb.Tx) error {
    ...
    return nil
})
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Setting and getting key/values

To set a value you must open a read/write transaction:

err := db.Update(func(tx *flashdb.Tx) error {
    _, _, err := tx.Set("mykey", "myvalue")
    return err
})
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To get the value:

err := db.View(func(tx *flashdb.Tx) error {
    val, err := tx.Get("mykey")
    if err != nil{
        return err
    }
    fmt.Printf("value is %s\n", val)
    return nil
})
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Commands

String Hash Set ZSet
SET HSET SADD ZADD
GET HGET SISMEMBER ZSCORE
DELETE HGETALL SRANDMEMBER ZCARD
EXPIRE HDEL SREM ZRANK
TTL HEXISTS SMOVE ZREVRANK
HLEN SCARD ZRANGE
HKEYS SMEMBERS ZREVRANGE
HVALS SUNION ZREM
HCLEAR SDIFF ZGETBYRANK
SCLEAR ZREVGETBYRANK
ZSCORERANGE
ZREVSCORERANGE
ZCLEAR

Benchmarks

  • Go Version : go1.11.4 darwin/amd64
  • OS: Mac OS X 10.13.6
  • Architecture: x86_64
  • 16 GB 2133 MHz LPDDR3
  • CPU: 3.1 GHz Intel Core i7
badger 2022/03/09 14:04:44 INFO: All 0 tables opened in 0s
goos: darwin
goarch: amd64
pkg: github.com/arriqaaq/flashbench
cpu: Intel(R) Core(TM) i9-9980HK CPU @ 2.40GHz

BenchmarkBadgerDBPutValue64B-16             9940        141844 ns/op        2208 B/op         68 allocs/op
BenchmarkBadgerDBPutValue128B-16            7701        192942 ns/op        2337 B/op         68 allocs/op
BenchmarkBadgerDBPutValue256B-16            7368        142600 ns/op        2637 B/op         69 allocs/op
BenchmarkBadgerDBPutValue512B-16            6980        148056 ns/op        3149 B/op         69 allocs/op
BenchmarkBadgerDBGet-16                  1000000          1388 ns/op         408 B/op          9 allocs/op

BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue64B-16            159992          7208 ns/op        1461 B/op         19 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue128B-16           175634          9499 ns/op        2003 B/op         19 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue256B-16           148362          9278 ns/op        3322 B/op         19 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue512B-16           120865         16542 ns/op        6037 B/op         19 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBGet-16                   1881042           643.9 ns/op        32 B/op          2 allocs/op

PASS
ok      github.com/arriqaaq/flashbench  28.947s
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With fsync enabled for every update transaction

badger 2022/03/09 14:04:44 INFO: All 0 tables opened in 0s
goos: darwin
goarch: amd64
pkg: github.com/arriqaaq/flashbench
cpu: Intel(R) Core(TM) i9-9980HK CPU @ 2.40GHz

BenchmarkNutsDBPutValue64B-16             52      20301019 ns/op        1315 B/op         17 allocs/op
BenchmarkNutsDBPutValue128B-16            63      23496536 ns/op        1059 B/op         15 allocs/op
BenchmarkNutsDBPutValue256B-16            62      20037952 ns/op        1343 B/op         15 allocs/op
BenchmarkNutsDBPutValue512B-16            62      20090731 ns/op        1754 B/op         15 allocs/op

BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue64B-16           105      16154174 ns/op         770 B/op         18 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue128B-16           62      21666543 ns/op        1119 B/op         18 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue256B-16           61      18631201 ns/op        1956 B/op         18 allocs/op
BenchmarkFlashDBPutValue512B-16           62      20118103 ns/op        3071 B/op         18 allocs/op

PASS
ok      github.com/arriqaaq/flashbench  28.947s
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The benchmark code can be found here flashdb-bench.

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