DEV Community

loading...
Cover image for Rebuilding FactoryBot in 150 lines of code

Rebuilding FactoryBot in 150 lines of code

Alexandre Ruban
Ruby on Rails developer with a strong interest in design (and CSS 😍)
Originally published at rubycube.dev Updated on ・16 min read

FactoryBot is a gem that enables you to create fake data for your tests. If you work with Ruby on Rails, there are good chances that you worked with the gem on a few projects.

In this article, we will rebuild a FactoryBot clone called TinyFactory in about 150 lines of code. We will learn amazing Ruby features such as:

  • How the elegant FactoryBot syntax works under the hood
  • How to create a gem
  • How to use blocks and procs
  • How to use #method_missing and #instance_eval

By the end of the article, you will know enough to go through the source code of the real factory bot repository on your own if you want to! To get the most out of this article, you should take your time and build the gem with me, it is guided step by step for you to understand everything! Are you ready to learn some cool things in Ruby? Let's get started!

Creating the TinyFactory gem

Let's start by creating a new gem called TinyFactory with the bundle gem command:

bundle gem tiny_factory
cd tiny_factory
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

If you're creating a gem for the first time, I'll quickly describe the main files that were created for you, otherwise, you can skip directly to the next section!

The tiny_factory.gempspec file contains the specification of your gem. It lists various information about the gem, the author, and the list of the dependencies.

The Rakefile looks like this by default:

# frozen_string_literal: true

require "bundler/gem_tasks"
require "rake/testtask"

Rake::TestTask.new(:test) do |t|
  t.libs << "test"
  t.libs << "lib"
  t.test_files = FileList["test/**/*_test.rb"]
end

task default: :test
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

This code means that the default rake task will run all the test files of the test folder ending with _test.rb. To run this default rake task, simply type bundle exec rake in your terminal.

The test folder contains the tests you'll write to test your gem. The test_helper.rb file comes with some boilerplate code to automatically add the files from your lib folder in the load path. We will write some tests in this article later!

Finally, the lib folder is where you will write your source code!

All the Ruby gems are built with these conventions, so next time you open the source code of a gem, you will find the same folder hierarchy and you won't be lost!

Testing the TinyFactory gem

Adding an integration test

To clearly define what we will build in this article, let's first write an integration test! We will consider that we have succeeded in our mission when all the integration tests are green! Let's create a file called integration_test.rb in our test folder:

# test/integration_test.rb

require "test_helper"

class IntegrationTest < Minitest::Test
  def setup
    TinyFactory.define :user do
      first_name { "Alexandre" }
      last_name { "Ruban" }
      email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
    end
  end

  def test_attributes_for
    attributes = attributes_for(:user)

    assert_kind_of Hash, attributes

    assert_equal "Alexandre",         attributes[:first_name]
    assert_equal "Ruban",             attributes[:last_name]
    assert_equal "alexandre@hey.com", attributes[:email]
  end

  def test_build
    user = build(:user)

    assert_kind_of User, user
    assert user.new_record?

    assert_equal "Alexandre",         user.first_name
    assert_equal "Ruban",             user.last_name
    assert_equal "alexandre@hey.com", user.email
  end

  def test_create
    user = create(:user)

    assert_kind_of User, user
    assert user.persisted?

    assert_equal "Alexandre",         user.first_name
    assert_equal "Ruban",             user.last_name
    assert_equal "alexandre@hey.com", user.email
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As you can see, the syntax in the #setup method is close to the real FactoryBot syntax. This is what we will build step by step in this article!

To make our test pass later, we still need to add a little bit of boilerplate.

Adding the required dependencies

To make our test pass, we need to add a User model to our application. This User model will inherit from ActiveRecord::Base to simulate a real model in a Rails application.

Let's add all the dependencies we need in the gemspec:

# tiny_factory.gemspec

require_relative "lib/tiny_factory/version"

Gem::Specification.new do |spec|
  # ...
  # Don't remove the automatically generated code
  # Add these dependencies at the end

  spec.add_development_dependency("activerecord", "~> 6.1")
  spec.add_development_dependency("sqlite3", "~> 1.4.2")
  spec.add_dependency("activesupport", "~> 6.1")
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As you can see, we add a development dependency on active record and sqlite3. This is because we'll need a User model inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base. We will also need to save User instances in a sqlite3 database in memory.

Note that we also added a dependency on active support that we will talk about later in the article.

Now that we listed the dependencies, we can run the bundle install command. Bundler might complain that there are some "TODO" in the gemspec file. Removing them should enable you to run bundle install without any troubles!

Creating our User model

Let's create the User model in the test_helper.rb file:

# test/test_helper.rb

require "tiny_factory"
require "minitest/autorun"
require "active_record"

ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection(
  database: ":memory:",
  adapter: "sqlite3"
)

class CreateSchema < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def self.up
    create_table :users, force: true do |t|
      t.string  :first_name
      t.string  :last_name
      t.string  :email
    end
  end
end

CreateSchema.migrate(:up)

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  validates :first_name, :last_name, :email, presence: true
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

This piece of code creates a new connection to a sqlite3 database in memory, runs a migration that creates the users table, and creates the User model that inherits from ActiveRecord::Base just like you would do in a Rails application. As we required the "test_helper" in our integration_test.rb file, the User model will be available here as well!

Now that our test files and our dependencies are all set, we are ready to dive into the FactoryBot code!

The two steps of FactoryBot

FactoryBot works in two steps:

  1. You define a factory
  2. You run the factory

The definition is what happens when we write those lines in our integration test.

TinyFactory.define :user do
  first_name { "Alexandre" }
  last_name { "Ruban" }
  email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

We then run the factory when we use one of the methods #attributes_for, #build or #create.

Defining a Factory

We will start this article by understanding how to define the :user factory of our integration test. The definition relies on two simple classes: Factory and Attribute. Let's understand them!

The Factory class

The Factory class is responsible for holding the factory name and the attributes' definitions! Let's make that clear with a piece of code:

# lib/tiny_factory/factory.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Factory
    # A factory has a factory_name and holds the attributes
    attr_reader :factory_name

    def initialize(factory_name)
      @factory_name = factory_name
      @attributes = []
    end

    # Here comes the Attribute object!
    def add_attribute(name, definition)
      @attributes << Attribute.new(name, definition)
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

In our example, the factory_name is :user and the attributes are first_name, last_name, and email.

Now that we understand that our Factory holds its name and adds attributes definitions to a list of attributes, let's move on to the Attribute class.

The Attribute class

The Attribute class is the simplest of all! It's only responsible for holding an attribute name and its definition.

# lib/tiny_factory/attribute.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Attribute
    def initialize(name, definition)
      @name = name.to_sym
      @definition = definition
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Let's take our email attribute as an example. When we write email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase } in the integration test, what we are creating under the hood is an Attribute with its name equals to :email and its definition equals to a proc that we could write like this Proc.new { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }

Now, if you're not familiar with procs, you will understand them much more after reading this article so keep going!

A proc is an object that holds a piece of code that will be evaluated later! Here, the definition Proc.new { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase } has not been evaluated yet! It is a piece of code waiting to be called. We will see later in the article that the definition is evaluated when you run the factory.

Adding syntactic sugar

Now that we have the Factory and the Attribute objects, it's time to reveal the mysteries behind this beautiful syntax:

TinyFactory.define :user do
  first_name { "Alexandre" }
  last_name { "Ruban" }
  email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

With the Factory and Attribute classes we just coded, we could define a factory like this:

factory = TinyFactory::Factory.new(:user)
factory.add_attribute(:first_name, Proc.new { "Alexandre" })
factory.add_attribute(:last_name,  Proc.new { "Ruban" })
factory.add_attribute(:email,      Proc.new { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase })
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

This works but it is not very elegant.

We are building a gem that will be used by a lot of developers and we want it to have an easy-to-remember API. To make our syntax elegant, we will add syntactic sugar. This means that our gem will keep the same features it already has but we will make the API easier to write and remember.

Let's transform our current syntax into the elegant syntax. First, we need to add the TinyFactory.define method:

# lib/tiny_factory.rb

# This was generated by the `bundle gem tiny_factory` command
require "tiny_factory/version"

# You need to require the files we just created
require "tiny_factory/factory"
require "tiny_factory/attribute"

module TinyFactory
  def self.define(name, &block)
    factory = Factory.new(name)
    factory.instance_eval(&block)
    factory
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

The Tinyfactory.define method instanciates a new Factory (with a name of :user in our example) and then calls #instance_eval with the block on it! What does the #instance_eval method do? It evaluates the block in the context of the instance on which it was called. This means that factory.instance_eval(&block) is equivalent in our example to writing:

factory.first_name { "Alexandre" }
factory.last_name  { "Ruban" }
factory.email      { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

All right but our factory does not respond to #first_name or #last_name or even #email! It only responds to #add_attribute. Let's change that by adding the #method_missing method to our Factory class.

What is #method_missing? It's a Ruby method that gets called when the method was not found on the object or any of its ancestors! Let's do a small example for you to understand:

class Random
end

Random.new.email
# => undefined method `email' for #<Random:0x00007fa950a840e8> (NoMethodError)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As you can see, calling email on an instance of the Random raises a NoMethodError. We can change that by adding method_missing to the Random class

class Random
  def method_missing(name, *args, &block)
    puts "The method #{name} was called"
    puts "The method was called with #{args} as arguments" if args.any?
    puts "The method was also given a block" if block
  end
end

Random.new.first_name
# => The method first_name was called


Random.new.names("Alexandre", "Ruban")
# => The method names was called
# => The method was called with ["Alexandre", "Ruban"] as arguments

Random.new.email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
# => The method email was called
# => The method was also given a block
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As you can see, #method_missing prevents the NoMethodError. The name of the missing method that was called on the object becomes the first argument of #method_missing. The arguments of the missing method that was called can be retrieved with *args which turns those arguments into an array. Last but not least if a block was passed to the missing method it can be transformed as a proc and passed as an argument!

What we want is to make those two syntax equivalent:

factory.add_attribute(:email) { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
factory.email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

This can be achieved with #method_missing like this:

# lib/tiny_factory/factory.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Factory
    # All the previous code
    # ...

    def method_missing(name, &block)
      add_attribute(name, block)
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Now calling #first_name and passing a block to an instance of Factory is equivalent to calling #add_attribute with :first_name and passing the block!

What is the & signed used for before the block? It is used to convert a block to a proc and vice versa. If you pass a block to a function, &block will convert it to a proc that you can store for later evaluation. Similarly, if you have a variable my_proc that stores a proc, &my_proc will convert the proc to a block. It's as simple as that!

This is what syntactic sugar is! You are only making the API simpler to remember and more elegant!

Adding a factory registry

There is one last thing we need to do to complete our factory definition! We want to store all the defined factories in a registry to be able to retrieve them later based on their name. This will be useful when running one factory.

Let's add this feature very quickly when we define the Factory:

# lib/tiny_factory.rb

module TinyFactory
  @factories = []

  def self.factories
    @factories
  end

  def self.register_factory(factory)
    factories << factory
  end

  # Edit the .define method here
  def self.define(name, &block)
    factory = Factory.new(name)
    factory.instance_eval(&block)
    register_factory(factory)
    factory
  end

  # All the previous code
  # ...
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Now all the factories that are defined are stored in the TinyFactory.factories array!

Wow! Nice work our Factory :user is now correctly defined!
Let's manually test it to see what happens by creating a test.rb file at the root of the project:

# test.rb

# This line enables you to require "tiny_factory" here
# You do not need to understand it
$LOAD_PATH.unshift File.expand_path("./lib", __dir__)
require "tiny_factory"

factory = TinyFactory.define :user do
  first_name { "Alexandre" }
  last_name { "Ruban" }
  email { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }
end

p factory
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

If we then run this script in the console, here is what we get:

ruby test.rb

# =>
# #<TinyFactory::Factory:0x00007f93f305d000
#   @factory_name=:user,
#   @attributes=[
#     #<TinyFactory::Attribute:0x00007f93f305cd58
#       @name=:first_name,
#       @definition=#<Proc:0x00007f93f305ce20 test.rb:5>>,
#     #<TinyFactory::Attribute:0x00007f93f305cc90
#        @name=:last_name,
#        @definition=#<Proc:0x00007f93f305ccb8 test.rb:6>>,
#     #<TinyFactory::Attribute:0x00007f93f305cb28
#       @name=:email,
#       @definition=#<Proc:0x00007f93f305cb78 test.rb:7>>
#   ]>
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As we can see, we get back a Factory object with a factory_name of :user and holding three attributes :first_name, :last_name and :email, each of them holding their definition proc!

That's a great achievement already! Now it's time for us to run the factory with one of the three methods #attributes_for, #build or #create!

Running a Factory

Now that our Factory is defined, we need to run it. In our example it can mean three things:

  • Return a hash of attributes (#attributes_for)
  • Return a built instance (#build)
  • Return a created instance persisted in the database (#create)

We will start by making #attributes_for work and then it will be very easy to add the #buildand #createfeatures.

Making the attributes_for strategy work

For each of these three methods, we will define a strategy. Let's start with the AttributesFor strategy:

# lib/tiny_factory/strategy/attributes_for.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Strategy
    class AttributesFor
      def initialize
        @result = {}
      end

      def get(attribute)
        @result[attribute]
      end

      def set(attribute, value)
        @result[attribute] = value
      end

      def result
        @result
      end
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

The AttributesFor class is responsible for holding the result which is the hash of attributes that attributes_for(:user) returns in our integration test! What can we do with this class? We can get attributes from the result hash, set attributes to the result hash and, get the final result of our computation! Easy!

Now let's see how we can run this strategy! We will use TinyFactory.attributes_for(:user) for now instead of attributes_for(:user). This syntactic sugar will be added at the end of the article!

Let's add the TinyFactory.attributes_for method:

# lib/tiny_factory.rb

# All the previous requires
#...
# /!\ Don't forget to add this new require
require "tiny_factory/strategy/attributes_for"

module TinyFactory
  # All the previous code
  # ...

  def self.attributes_for(factory_name)
    find_factory(factory_name).run(Strategy::AttributesFor)
  end

  def self.find_factory(factory_name)
    factories.find { |factory| factory.factory_name == factory_name }
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As you can see, we defined a TinyFactory.attributes_for method that looks for the factory by its name and the calls #run on it with the AttributesFor strategy class!

Let's add the #run method to the Factory class:

# lib/tiny_factory/factory.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Factory
    # All the previous code
    # ...

    def run(strategy_class)
      strategy = strategy_class.new
      @attributes.each do |attribute|
        attribute.add_to(strategy)
      end
      strategy.result
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As you can see here, we create a new instance of the strategy class, then iterate through all the attributes of the factory and add each attribute to the strategy thanks to the Attribute#add_to method. Finally, we return the strategy result.

You guessed it, we are missing a #add_to method on the Attribute class. Let's add it:

# lib/tiny_factory/attribute.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Attribute
    def initialize(name, definition)
      @name = name
      @definition = definition
    end

    def add_to(strategy)
      # Not the final implementation
      strategy.set(@name, @definition.call)
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Let's explain the #add_to method carrefully because there is a trick!

In our integration test example, our user factory has a first_name attribute and its definition is equivalent to Proc.new { "Alexandre" }. In this case @definition.call return "Alexandre". That means that when we do strategy.set(@name, @definition.call) we are adding to the result hash, the key :first_name and the value "Alexandre"

Now let's take a look at our email attribute and its definition that is equivalent to Proc.new { "#{first_name}@hey.com".downcase }. This is more complicated because the #first_name method is not defined on the email attribute! How might we retrieve its value? We need to have a look at the strategy. But the strategy does not respond to the first_name method either. What are we going to use? You probably guessed it: method_missing!

# lib/tiny_factory/strategy/attributes_for.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Strategy
    class AttributesFor
    # All the previous code
    # ...

    def get(attribute)
      @result[attribute]
    end

    def method_missing(attribute)
      get(attribute)
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Now our strategy responds to the #first_name method and returns the value that was set earlier on the result hash of the strategy instance.

The final implementation of the #add_to method is as follows:

# lib/tiny_factory/attribute.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Attribute
    def initialize(name, definition)
      @name = name
      @definition = definition
    end

    def add_to(strategy)
      strategy.set(@name, strategy.instance_eval(&@definition))
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Notice the & before @definition? It converts the @definition proc to a bloc. Remember, the & sign before a block converts it to a proc and the & sign before a proc converts it back to a block, it's as simple as that!

We did it!

In the integration test, if you replace #attributes_for(:user) with TinyFactory.attributes_for(:user), the test is green! We'll add the syntactic sugar to avoid having to write TinyFactory at the end of the article but that"s already a huge step forward!

Making the build strategy work

To do this, we need to add a TinyFactory::Strategy::Build:

# lib/tiny_factory/strategy/build.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Strategy
    class Build
      # One small difference here, the strategy needs to be
      # initialized with a class. In our example, as we are building
      # a User instance, our build strategy will be initialized with the
      # User class.
      def initialize(klass)
        @instance = klass.new
      end

      def get(attribute)
        @instance.send(attribute)
      end

      def set(attribute, value)
        @instance.send("#{attribute}=", value)
      end

      def method_missing(attribute)
        get(attribute)
      end

      def result
        @instance
      end
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Notice how it's almost the same as the AttributesFor strategy? The result of the strategy is not a Hash but an instance of the class passed to the initialize method. This means that to read an attribute, we need to send the attribute name to the instance, and to set an attribute with some value, we need to send the message #{attribute}= with the value.

As you noticed, we changed the number of arguments taken by the initialize method of a strategy. We want all our strategies to have the same API to make them interchangeable. This is known in Object-Oriented Programming as polymorphism. Let's change the AttributesFor strategy so that is also initialized with an argument:

module TinyFactory
  class Strategy
    class AttributesFor
      # We use an underscore here to indicate the argument passed is never used
      def initialize(_)
        @result = {}
      end

      # All the rest of the code
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Even if we don't use the argument passed to initialize in the AttributesFor strategy, we still add it because we want to keep the same API between all of our strategies. This is called polymorphism and it's one of the most powerful features of OOP! If we didn't do that, we would need to check with if and else statements if the strategy we are using is AttributesFor or Build. This is called type checking and it's a code smell!

Let's go back to our Build strategy. We said that we are creating an instance of a class, but which class? By convention, when we create a factory with a name of :user, the class of the instance we build will be User! Let's add a tiny bit of code to create this convention:

# lib/tiny_factory/factory.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Factory
    # All the previous code

    def run(strategy_class)
      strategy = strategy_class.new(build_class)
      @attributes.each do |attribute|
        attribute.add_to(strategy)
      end
      strategy.result
    end

    private

    def build_class
      # This is why we need ActiveSupport as a dependency.
      # `classify` and `constantize` are Active Support methods.
      factory_name.to_s.classify.constantize
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Thanks to ActiveSupport#classify and ActiveSupport#constantize, a factory with a name of :user will have a build_class of User and a factory with a name of :billing_information will have a build_class of BillingInformation. This is the convention we created! We guess the class to pass to the strategy from the name of the factory!

Wow! That's great progress!

One last thing to make it work, we need to require the file in our tiny_factory.rb and create the .build method.

# lib/tiny_factory.rb

# /!\ Add this require to the list
require "tiny_factory/strategy/build"

module TinyFactory
  # All the previous code

  def self.build(factory_name)
    find_factory(factory_name).run(Strategy::Build)
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

You can now check that both the #attributes_for and the #build integration tests pass if you replace attributes_for(:user) with TinyFactory.attributes_for(:user) and build(:user) with TinyFactory.build(:user)!

Making the create strategy work

This one is much much easier, we already did all the work! We simply need to add our TinyFactroy::Strategy::Create:

# lib/tiny_factory/strategy/create.rb

module TinyFactory
  class Strategy
    class Create < Build
      def result
        @instance.save!
        @instance
      end
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

The Create strategy is the same as the Build strategy except that we
need to save! the result instance in the database before we return it. To do this we make the Create strategy inherit from the Build strategy and simply override the #result method.

Once again, let's add the TinyFactory.create method and require the create_strategy.rb file:

# lib/tiny_factory.rb

# /!\ Add this require to the list
require "tiny_factory/strategy/create"

module TinyFactory
  # All the previous code
  # ...

  def self.create(factory_name)
    find_factory(factory_name).run(Strategy::Create)
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

You can now make the create integration test pass by using TinyFactory.create(:user) instead of create(:user).

You did it!

Let's now add one last piece of syntactic sugar and we will be done with this FactoryBot clone and you will know enough to dig through the real source code!

The TinyFactory::Syntax::Default module

In our tests, we want to use attributes_for(:user) instead of TinyFactory.attributes_for(:user), it is too verbose and we care about the syntax we will use every day as developers!

Let's add one last piece of syntactic sugar by creating a TinyFactory::Syntax::Methods module:

# lib/tiny_factory/syntax/methods.rb

module TinyFactory
  module Syntax
    module Methods
      def attributes_for(name)
        TinyFactory.attributes_for(name)
      end

      def build(name)
        TinyFactory.build(name)
      end

      def create(name)
        TinyFactory.create(name)
      end
    end
  end
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

The three methods created here only delegate to the TinyFactory module. This is very simple but will improve our experience as developers when we use the library!

To use this module we simply need to add this line in our test helper and to require the file in tiny_factory.rb:

# lib/tiny_factory.rb

# Add this require statement
require "tiny_factory/syntax/methods"
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
# test/test_helper.rb

# All the previous code
# ...
class Minitest::Test
  include TinyFactory::Syntax::Methods
end
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

How does this work? Our integration test inherits from Minitest::Test. By including our syntactic sugar module in Minitest::Test we automatically gain access to the #attributes_for, #build and #create methods that delegate to the TinyFactory module!

Let's run the integration test from the beginning of the article now. Everything should be green, you are now able to understand how FactoryBot works! Congratulations!

Takeaways

In this articles, we learned:

  • To create a gem with the bundle gem command
  • To convert a block to a proc and vice versa with the & character
  • To intercept class to undefined methods on an object thanks to #method_missing
  • That polymorphism is an important concept in Object-Oriented Programming. If you want to learn more about the topic I highly recommend the 99 bottles of OOP book by Sandi Metz
  • That it is possible to add syntactic sugar to your code to make it more elegant and easy to remember
  • How the real FactoryBot works!

Did you like this article?

If you liked this article and want to be notified when I publish more, follow me on Twitter! Feel free to share this article with your developer friends and coworkers!

Discussion (1)

Collapse
yarotheslav profile image
Yaroslav Shmarov

LGTM!