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Analyzing reddit comments using Python

adamgoth profile image Adam Goth ・10 min read

In this post, we'll take a look at how to build a simple Python script for word analysis. We will then apply it to the comment section of any given reddit post.

Overview

Between my job and side projects, I typically spend most of my time building web applications using React and Node. That means writing almost exclusively JavaScript. To keep my perspective on programming fresh and not strictly confined to a single language, I wanted to take a little time to step out of the world of JavaScript and explore the world of another programming language. I decided to come up with a little project idea and to build it with Python. Python is a powerful yet friendly programming language that is popular with beginners and experienced programmers alike. It was created in 1991 by Guido van Rossum, but continues to rise in popularity almost 30 years later. In 2020, Python was at or near the top of the list for in-demand languages for programming jobs. It was also deemed by Wired magazine to be more popular than ever before. After spending just a short time writing code with Python, it's not hard to see why it's a popular choice. Let's jump in.

Setting up

This post will assume you have basic programming knowledge and that you have Python 3 installed. For more detailed information on installing Python, start here. The repo for this project can be found here. You will notice a .py file containing the full script, as well as a .ipynb file containing a Jupyter Notebook for the script. The Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web application that allows you to create and share documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative text, which can make it easier to follow along and learn how a python script works.

The script

The script in its entirety can be found here.

The first thing we need to do is import the requests library. This is what we will use to make the HTTP request to reddit to get the comment data from the reddit post. After that, we will initialize a few global variables. We will use these global variables to keep track of data as we parse through comments. comment_count is an integer and will track the number of comments we parse, comment_array is an array and will hold the actual comment strings, and more_comment_ids is another array that will hold ID strings that we will need in order to fetch additional comments that are not returned in the initial payload (commonly found in posts with many comments).

# imports
import requests  # The requests library for HTTP requests in Python

# globals
comment_count = 0
comment_array = []
more_comment_ids = []
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Next, we need to fetch the data for the reddit post. To do that, we can append .json to the end of any reddit post URL.

An example would be: https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments.json.

What we get back is JSON that will have a basic format that looks like this:

{
    "kind": "Listing",
    "data": {
        "children": [
            "kind": "t1",
            "data": {
                "body": "",
                "replies": ""
            }
        ]
    }
}
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A reddit post is referred to as a "Listing". Listings can contain many kinds of children. A child with a kind of t1 indicates that the child represents a comment. Within the comments data property, among many other properties, the text of the comment can be found on the body property, along with any possible replies which are located on the replies property. Replies are structured the same way as comments. They contain children and the children has kind and data properties. Within every reply to a comment, we may see another reply to that reply comment. Each of these contains their own identically formatted children. So in order to analyze all comments within a thread, we'll have to recursively sift through all comments and replies.

If having to follow each individual comment tree recursively to its end wasn't tricky enough, there's another issue we have to worry about. Since comment threads can become quite long, not every comment is always displayed on the initial thread load. When this happens, reddit shows "load more replies" buttons within threads. So how do we get these as well? To handle these instances, the API will deliver a child with a kind property value of more.

{
    "kind": "more",
    "data": {
        "count": 2,
        "name": "t1_ghp1m6v",
        "id": "ghp1m6v",
        "parent_id": "t1_ghozojl",
        "depth": 2,
        "children": [
            "ghp1m6v"
        ]
    }
}
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The array of children within the more object will contain a list of thread IDs that can be used to fetch additional comments. In the code example above, there is just one child ID, ghp1m6v. So in addition to parsing all comment trees recursively, we will also have to collect any additional comment thread IDs and then do the same thing for those.

Hopefully, you are still with me at this point. Talking about all of this without writing any code can be confusing, so let's try to break it down with some functions that will help us achieve this goal.

The first function we'll write is parse_children_for_comments.

def parse_children_for_comments(children):
    global comment_count
    global comment_array
    for child in children:
        if child['kind'] == "more":
            children = child['data']['children']
            for id in children:
                more_comment_ids.append(id)
        if child['kind'] == "t1":
            comment_count += 1
            comment_array.append(child['data']['body'])
            get_replies(child['data'])
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It will take an array of children objects that are sent back in the response data and will pull out the comment text which is found in the body property. For each child in the array argument of children, we will check its kind. If the kind is more, we will loop through and add each id to the global array we created, more_comment_ids. We will eventually come back to this array of ids and parse through it.

Next, if the kind is t1, that means we have a comment and we want to read its text. In order to do that, we simply get the text with child['data']['body'] and append it to our global comment_array variable.

After appending the comment to the comment_array, we need to check if there are any replies to that comment. Since we will be doing this check many times, it's best that we write a helper function for it. We'll call it get_replies:

def get_replies(comment):
    global comment_count
    if comment['replies'] != "":
        children = comment['replies']['data']['children']
        parse_children_for_comments(children)
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First, we check if there are any replies. When there are no replies, the replies property will be an empty string. If the string is not empty, we know we have a reply. As I mentioned above, replies take the same format as the original comment it is replying to. So in order to parse the reply text, we can reuse the same parse_children_for_comments function we already wrote. Since parse_children_for_comments will again call get_replies, and get_replies will again call parse_children_for_comments until there are no comments left, this will recursively continue until we reach a child comment with an empty replies property. Pretty neat.

With those helper functions defined, we're ready to fetch our data. In order to do this, we will use a built-in Python function called input which will allow the user to enter a URL to a reddit post.

# get url from user
print('enter the reddit post url (e.g. https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments/):')
thread_url = input()
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We can expect the user to paste in a URL for a reddit post. For example, it may look something like this: https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments/

To get the post data, we need to turn https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments/ into https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments.json.

To do that, we can write a small helper function.

def sanitize_input(url):
    last_char = url[-1]
    if last_char == '/':
        url = url[:-1]
    url = f'{url}.json'
    return url
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We pass the URL as an argument into the function. The function checks if the last character of url is a / and removes it if it is. Then the function appends .json to the end of url. After we pass the user's inputted URL to this function, we're ready to fetch the post data.

# pass user's url to sanitize helper
sanitized_thread_url = sanitize_input(thread_url)

# make network call
req_data = requests.get(sanitized_thread_url, headers={'User-agent': 'adamgoth.com'})

if req_data.status_code != 200:
    print('request failed')
    print(req_data.json())

if req_data.status_code == 200:
    json_data = req_data.json()
    for item in json_data:
        children = item['data']['children']
        parse_children_for_comments(children)
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We call requests.get(), passing our URL as the first parameter, as well as a headers value for a second parameter. The reason we need to specify a User-agent property in the header is so that we have a unique identity to reddit. This will ensure we appear entirely anonymous and run into rate-limiting issues.

Once we have our data back in our req_data variable, the first thing we'll check is if we did not get a 200 response for any reason. If the response is not 200, we will print out the error.

Assuming we get a 200, we can then start parsing the data. We can use the requests library built-in JSON decoder and called .json() on the response. We then write a simple for statement that takes each child in the response data and passes it to the parse_children_for_comments we previously discussed.

After the for loop from line 13 completes, we should have a number of comments stored in our global comment_array. Additionally, depending on the number of comments from the post, we may have found some additional comment IDs and stored them in our global more_comment_ids array. As a reminder, these are IDs we can use to fetch more comments that did not appear in the initial load. In the reddit UI, these represent the links within comment threads that appear as "load more replies", and in our data response, these IDs come from the children that have a kind property value of more.

The URL for fetching the additional comment data looks similar to the URL we used for fetching the initial post data. The only difference is the comment ID is appended to the end. So https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments.json becomes https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/krolrb/multicomments/{comment_id}.json. We can write a simple helper function to do this for us.

def create_thread_url(comment_id):
    return sanitized_thread_url.replace('.json', f'/{comment_id}.json')
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We simply pass the comment_id as an argument and then do a string replace on .json with /{comment_id}.json.

We're then ready to make the requests for the additional comments.

# handle extra comment ids
for id in more_comment_ids:
    req_data = requests.get(create_thread_url(
        id), headers={'User-agent': 'adamgoth.com'})
    if req_data.status_code != 200:
        print('request failed')
        print(req_data.json())

    if req_data.status_code == 200:
        json_data = req_data.json()
        for item in json_data:
            children = item['data']['children']
            parse_children_for_comments(children)
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To fetch the additional comments, we'll use another for loop to loop through each ID in the more_comment_ids array. For each one, we again use requests.get(), passing the comment ID to the create_thread_url function we just wrote, along with the same User-agent header as our previous request. Once we have our response, we again check the status code, and if it's successful, we'll parse the data the same way we did before, passing each child in the data to parse_children_for_comments. As a word of caution, for posts with thousands of comment replies, this can result in a large number of additional comment IDs. It's possible to have hundreds of IDs to fetch. Each one of these will require a synchronous network call, so it can take quite a while if this is the case.

Once all the additional comment IDs have been fetched, we have all the data we need to run our word analysis. To do this, we will combine all of the comments in our global comment_array variable into a single string. We will then write a function which will parse that string and keep track of how many times each word appears. The function to do that looks like this:

def analyze_words(words):
    analysis_string = words.split(' ')
    word_dict = {}
    for word in analysis_string:
        cleaned_word = word.replace('.', '').replace("'", '').replace(
            '\n', '').replace(',', '').replace("’", '').lower()
        if cleaned_word not in word_dict:
            word_dict[cleaned_word] = 1
        else:
            word_dict[cleaned_word] += 1

    return word_dict
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The function takes a single string as an argument called words. It then breaks the string into an array of words called analysis_string by splitting the string on each space character found in the string. We create an empty dictionary called word_dict that we will use to keep track of each word's appearance. Then we loop through each word in our analysis_string array. For each word, we use string replaces to strip out various common special characters (commas, periods, etc.) and then call .lower() on it to convert all uppercase characters to lowercase characters. This ensures that The and the are not tracked as two different words. As we go through each word in the array, if the word does not exist in our word_dict dictionary yet, we will add it and give it a count value of 1. If it already exists in word_dict, then we will just increment the count value up by 1. When we are finished looping through each word, we will return the word_dict we created.

The end of the script looks as follows:

comment_string = ' '.join(comment_array)
results = analyze_words(comment_string)

sorted = sorted(results.items(), key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True)

print(f'{comment_count} comments analyzed')

for key in sorted:
    print(key)
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After combining all the comments into a single string and passing that string through analyze_words, we can sort all the results by the number of appearances counted by calling sorted = sorted(results.items(), key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True). We can then print the total number of comments we parsed and then each word and the number of times it appeared.

Wrapping up

The script in its entirety can be found here. To run the script, simply run python reddit-comment-analysis.py from the directory containing the script file.

If you have Jupyter Notebooks installed, a more interactive version of this post can be found here.

This script serves as a basic starting point for fetching and analyzing data from the web. There is room for many improvements and enhancements to this script. Ideas for additional features include:

  • Input validation
  • Options for handling upper and lower casing
  • Options for removing special characters
  • Options for removing common words (the, and, I, etc.)

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Thanks for reading!

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