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Zeeshan Safdar
Zeeshan Safdar

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Understanding Git and Github

Hi Folks, Are you get started with Version Control System? Or just want to learn about git? Don't worry, today we will learn these in details.

What and Why - Git and Github

Git is a version control system. And what is version control system exactly, let's find out.
Imagine you have some project and you want to collaborate with other people. Or Imagine you add a new feature into your project, and now your application breaks, and it is not running as it was running before, and you think,

Ohh, It would be very great, If I could go back in the past, in that codebase in which my application was running. I wish there is some sort of way.

Congratulations!!! Your wish came true.

Thanks to Version Control System that helps us to track and manage changes to our project. It helps us to maintain the history of our project, like at what particular point of time, which person made which change, where in the project.

So you understand the Version Control System, and what is relationship between Git and Version Control System? Git is a version control system. And there are other version control systems as well, like SVN, TFS etc. But we use Git because it is so popular, and mostly programmers like you and me use Git.

And what is Github?
Github is a platform, that allows us to host our Git projects/Repositories.

Think both like an email service. You use email service in you day to day life, right? You send an email via a platform like Gmail, Outlook etc. These are some platforms that give you an interface to use this service, which is send an email. Now relate with it Git and Github, you use Git with some other platforms, like Github, Gitlab, Bitbucket etc. These platforms allow us to host our projects on their website, so that other people from around the world can share, look, contribute our projects.
You get the idea... right!

And WHY we are using Git and Github as there are so many version control systems (like CVS, SVN, Mercurial, Monotone etc.) and platforms (like Gitlab, Bitbucket etc.) because these are so popular in the market. Everybody use Git and Github as these are the standards.
You get the idea... right!

A Basic Project (Steps)

  • Make a repository in the Github website
  • Make a folder into your PC
  • run command git init into your folder
  • rum command git remote add origin insert_https_project_link_here to connect your Github repository with your current(local) folder
  • run command git remote -v to view your all remote urls
  • Add files into your folder, make some changes also
  • run command git status to view the changes
  • run command git add file_name or git add . (to add everything in the current folder)
  • run command git commit -m "your_message_here" to Committing the files
  • run command git push origin master to push your local changes to remote repository

Congratulations!!! You create your first Github repo

Now I will list down some basic concepts that you use daily in your git work

Some Keywords and Concepts

You never need to become a master of Git and Github before using it. You just need a basic understanding of it to get started. Mostly, in the industry, we use some concepts repetitively and these are the followings.

Repository/repo: This is your project on the platform or project in which you are working on.

Branch: A branch is a new/separate version of the main repository. There will be a main or master branch which is the first or default branch in the repository. Let' say I am working on a project, and 7 other developers are also working on the same project. If all the others are working in the same branch, It will be very difficult to maintain all the work. If I am working on a feature called login feature, then I will make a new branch let's say feature/login and will work on this branch without impacting the other code work. Once my work will complete, I will merge my feature/login branch into the main or master branch.

Never commit on the main or master branch since it's the one
used by the people, to prevent any mishaps.

Push: Let's say I complete my login work (mentioned above), now I need to push my local code into our repository. For that we use push concept, I will run the command and push my changes to the branch.
git push origin feature/login
-- feature/login is the branch name

Note: Before pushing my changes, I need to pull the latest code in my current branch.

Pull: Let's say I was working on my login work, and also one my friend also working on login functionality and his part is to beautify the UI part. He done his changes and push his code into the feature/login branch. Now, If I need his changes, I need to pull his changes from the Git. And the command I will use is
git pull origin feature/login
-- feature/login is the branch name

Merge: Let's say I completed my work of login functionality, and now I want to merge with it main code base and accessible to others to use my functionality. For this I need to merge my branch with the main branch or master branch.

Merge Conflict: Let's say, I was working on a file in my feature/login branch, and my other friend was also working on the same file. We both make a change on the same line, when I take pull of his code, then Git will on confuse, wether my code will be on this line or my friend's code. This situation is called conflict. We then resolve this issue, by telling the Git that whose code will be gone to the repository.

Basic Git Commands

  • To check if git is installed in your PC
    git

  • To initialize an empty Git repository in your folder
    git init

  • To view the changes or the untracked files in the
    project that's not been saved yet
    git status

  • Staging the files
    git add file_name or git add . (to stage everything in
    the current folder)

  • Committing the files
    git commit -m "your_message_here"

  • To unstage or remove a file from the staging level
    git restore --staged file_name.txt

  • To view the entire history of the project
    git log

  • Removing a commit from the history of a project
    git reset
    insert_commit_hash_id_to_which_you_want_to_go_back_to_here

    (all the commits or changes before this will go back to
    the unstaged area now)

  • After you stage a few files but then you want to have a
    clean codebase or reuse those files later, we can
    stash those changes to go back to the commit before
    they were staged
    git stash

  • Bringing back those changes or pop them from the
    stash
    git stash pop

  • To clear the changes or files in your stash
    git stash clear

How Git works

  • Connecting your Remote Repository to Local Repository
    git remote add origin insert_https_project_link_here

  • Pushing local changes to remote repository
    git push origin master (we're pushing to the url origin,
    and the branch master)

  • To view all your remote urls
    git remote -v

  • Move to other branch
    git checkout branch_name

  • Merging your branch to main of project
    git merge branch_name

If you are still feel stuck or confuse, don't worry,
Follow the video that will clear your concepts.
Complete Git and GitHub Tutorial - Kunal Kushwaha

Follow this very useful PDF for all the commands that you need.
Git Cheat Sheet Education

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