Everyone faces a toxic team at one point or another (and if you don't either you didn't notice, or you were one of the lucky ones). The biggest problem is that, as you've pointed out, it isn't always easy to recognize. Or worse, it seems that you aren't in the position to improve that situation. I have found, though, working together with others does help, especially if the whole team is on the same page. In our team, we've recognized the issues with this and want to stay ahead of the game. To do that we've spent time invested in finding tools which help us keep track of our teams. The one we've found to help us the most is Teaminator, it has some simple things, but we use to make sure our team is working effectively. I've tried thinking back to some of the things you mentioned, and I've found we we were able to pull ourselves out of those trouble spots only because we were paying attention.
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