# Daily Coding Challenge #57

This is a series of Daily Coding Challenge. Each day I show a few solutions written in C++. The questions are from coding practice/contest sites such as HackerRank, LeetCode, Codeforces, Atcoder and etc.

``````/*
LeetCode - Island Perimeter

You are given a map in form of a two-dimensional integer grid where 1 represents land and 0 represents water.

Grid cells are connected horizontally/vertically (not diagonally). The grid is completely surrounded by water, and there is exactly one island (i.e., one or more connected land cells).

The island doesn't have "lakes" (water inside that isn't connected to the water around the island). One cell is a square with side length 1. The grid is rectangular, width and height don't exceed 100. Determine the perimeter of the island.

Example:

Input:
[[0,1,0,0],
[1,1,1,0],
[0,1,0,0],
[1,1,0,0]]

Output: 16
*/

class Solution {
public:
int islandPerimeter(vector<vector<int>>& grid) {
// a) count how many islands, multiply by 4
// b) count how many neighours, multiply by 2
// ans = a) - b)
int c=0, cc=0;
for(int i=0;i<grid.size();i++){
for(int j=0;j<grid[0].size();j++){
if(grid[i][j]==1){
c++;
if(i!=0&&grid[i-1][j]==1) cc++;
if(j!=0&&grid[i][j-1]==1) cc++;
}
}
}
return 4*c-2*cc;
}
};

static const auto io_sync_off = []() {std::ios::sync_with_stdio(false);cin.tie(nullptr);cout.tie(nullptr);return 0;}();
``````

``````/*
LeetCode - Toeplitz Matrix

A matrix is Toeplitz if every diagonal from top-left to bottom-right has the same element.

Now given an M x N matrix, return True if and only if the matrix is Toeplitz.

Example 1:

Input:
matrix = [
[1,2,3,4],
[5,1,2,3],
[9,5,1,2]
]
Output: True
Explanation:
In the above grid, the diagonals are:
"[9]", "[5, 5]", "[1, 1, 1]", "[2, 2, 2]", "[3, 3]", "[4]".
In each diagonal all elements are the same, so the answer is True.
Example 2:

Input:
matrix = [
[1,2],
[2,2]
]
Output: False
Explanation:
The diagonal "[1, 2]" has different elements.

Note:

matrix will be a 2D array of integers.
matrix will have a number of rows and columns in range [1, 20].
matrix[i][j] will be integers in range [0, 99].

What if the matrix is stored on disk, and the memory is limited such that you can only load at most one row of the matrix into the memory at once?
What if the matrix is so large that you can only load up a partial row into the memory at once?
*/

class Solution {
public:
bool isToeplitzMatrix(vector<vector<int>>& matrix) {
int m=matrix.size(), n=matrix[0].size();
for(int i=0;i<m-1;i++){
for(int j=0;j<n-1;j++){
// check if the diagonal element is same or not
if(matrix[i][j]!=matrix[i+1][j+1]){
return false;
}
}
}
return true;
}
};
``````

``````/*
LeetCode - Number of Lines To Write String

We are to write the letters of a given string S, from left to right into lines. Each line has maximum width 100 units, and if writing a letter would cause the width of the line to exceed 100 units, it is written on the next line. We are given an array widths, an array where widths[0] is the width of 'a', widths[1] is the width of 'b', ..., and widths[25] is the width of 'z'.

Now answer two questions: how many lines have at least one character from S, and what is the width used by the last such line? Return your answer as an integer list of length 2.

Example :
Input:
widths = [10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10]
S = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
Output: [3, 60]
Explanation:
All letters have the same length of 10. To write all 26 letters,
we need two full lines and one line with 60 units.
Example :
Input:
widths = [4,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10,10]
S = "bbbcccdddaaa"
Output: [2, 4]
Explanation:
All letters except 'a' have the same length of 10, and
"bbbcccdddaa" will cover 9 * 10 + 2 * 4 = 98 units.
For the last 'a', it is written on the second line because
there is only 2 units left in the first line.
So the answer is 2 lines, plus 4 units in the second line.

Note:

The length of S will be in the range [1, 1000].
S will only contain lowercase letters.
widths is an array of length 26.
widths[i] will be in the range of [2, 10].
*/

class Solution {
public:
vector<int> numberOfLines(vector<int>& widths, string S) {
int cnt=0,l=1;
for(char c:S){
cnt+=widths[c-'a'];
if(cnt>100){
// exceed 100 units, increase line
l++;
// carry the current unit to next line
cnt=widths[c-'a'];
}
}
return vector<int>({l,cnt});
}
};
``````

The source code is available in corresponding repo below. Star and watch for timely updates!