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# Computer Graphics BCA Practical File Solutions

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# What is BCA or Bachelor of Computer Science?

Bachelor of Computer Applications is a three-year full-time degree programme. It is accredited by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi and affiliated to the University of Mumbai. The BCA programme is spread over a period of three years.

# What is Computer Graphics?

Computer graphics is the science, art, and technology of creating images, animation, video, and models from digital data. Computer graphics is a broad term that encompasses different methods of representing visual information on a computer.

What is Computer Animation?

Computer animation refers to the creation of moving images using a computer. There are many computer animation formats and techniques, but the main two are 2D animation and 3D animation.

# Computer Graphics Syllabus

Unit – I Introduction and Line Generation:

Types of computer graphics, Graphic Displays- Random scan displays, Raster scan displays, Frame buffer and video controller, Points and lines, Line drawing algorithms, Circle generating algorithms, Mid pointcircle generating algorithm, and parallel version of these algorithms.

Unit – II Transformations:

Basic transformation, Matrix representations and homogenous coordinates, Composite transformations, Reflections and shearing. Windowing and Clipping: Viewing pipeline, Viewing transformations, 2-D Clipping algorithms- Line clipping algorithms such as Cohen Sutherland line clipping algorithm, Liang Barsky algorithm, Line clipping against non rectangular clip windows; Polygon clipping – Sutherland Hodgeman polygon clipping, Weiler and Atherton polygon clipping, Curve clipping, Text clipping.

Unit – III Three Dimensional:

3-D geometric primitives, 3-D Object representation, 3-D Transformation, 3-D viewing, projections, 3-D Clipping.

Unit – IV Curves and Surfaces:

Quadric surfaces, Spheres, Ellipsoid, Blobby objects, Introductory concepts of Spline, Bspline and Bezier curves and surfaces. Hidden Lines and Surfaces: Back Face Detection algorithm, Depth buffer method, A- buffer method, Scan line method, basic illumination models– Ambient light, Diffuse reflection, Specular reflection and Phong model, Combined approach, Warn model, Intensity Attenuation, Color consideration, Transparency and Shadows.

References :

1. Donald Hearn and M Pauline Baker, “Computer Graphics C Version”, Pearson Education

2. Amrendra N Sinha and Arun D Udai,” Computer Graphics”, Tata MCGraw Hill.

3. Donald Hearn and M Pauline Baker, “Computer Graphics with OpenGL”, Pearson education

4. R.K. Maurya, “Computer Graphics ” Wiley Dreamtech Publication.

5. Rogers, “ Procedural Elements of Computer Graphics”, McGraw Hill

6. Mukherjee, Fundamentals of Computer graphics & Multimedia, PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi India.

7. Foley, Vandam, Feiner, Hughes – “Computer Graphics principle”, Pearson Education.

8. W. M. Newman, R. F. Sproull – “Principles of Interactive computer Graphics” – Tata MCGraw Hill.