I'll have a go at the Enterprise Architect title: this usually refers to a role that looks at the way a larger organisation (aka Enterprise) functions: the culture it has, how information and finance flows through it, how risk is managed, how people are hired and retained and how that lot matches up to the roadmap/vision and strategies of the business.
This is followed by the refactoring of these things to improve performance, usually through applying lean thinking, restructuring (sometimes de-structuring), transformation programmes, etc. to deliver more effectively. For the massively bored, go look at TOGAF as one way to approach this (although it has detractors, me included).
TL;DR: It's engineering a whole company to meet desired/expected performance.
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