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Discussion on: What is meant by a "shape" in programming

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peerreynders • Edited on

"shape" is a much looser concept than that.

It just happens that in JavaScript object literals (or dictionaries in early Python) are used to represent structured data. I would say that the term tends surface in contexts (or serialization formats) that are structurally typed rather than nominally typed.

For example in the Clojure spec guide:

In the success case, the parsed input is transformed into the desired shape for further processing.


From the Racket rebellion documentation:

Two kind-type? values are equal whenever the names, field counts, etc. of the types they describe are equivalent. That is, kind-type? values are compared using structural equality. The term shape of a type or simply shape, refers to a kind-type? value.


"shape" seems to be primarily used in contexts where structured data is represented by a collection of key/value pairs where order doesn't necessarily matter. Compare that to a C struct which specifies memory layout so order does matter and "structure" implies a more rigid organization. Though both terms are used in a rather informal manner.

Note that when arrays are used as tuples (wikipedia):

type SomeTriple = [string, number, boolean];
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they could manifest a shape.

  • They have a predetermined and fixed length
  • A particular type is expected at each particular element position.
  • The element position serves as the implicit "key"
  • The element itself is the "value".

Order matters as the key is coupled to the position so a tuple would have shape and structure.


In the context of class-based objection orientation "shape" sometimes refers to the public interface while "structure" also reveals the internal organization.