Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together
computer models from AI and experimental techniques from psychology to construct precise and testable theories of the human mind. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the
requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behavior appears. Artificial intelligence can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. From the perspective of intelligence
artificial intelligence is making machines "intelligent" -- acting as we would expect people to act. The inability to distinguish computer responses from human responses is called the Turing test. Intelligence requires knowledge expert problem solving - restricting domain to allow including significant relevant knowledge.
From a programming perspective, AI includes the study of symbolic
programming, problem solving, and search.
o Typically AI programs focus on symbols rather than numeric
o Problem solving - achieve goals.
o AI programming languages include:
– LISP, developed in the 1950s, is the early programming language
strongly associated with AI. LISP is a functional programming language with procedural extensions. LISP (LISt Processor) was specifically designed for processing heterogeneous lists -- typically a list of symbols.
Features of LISP
are run- time type checking, higher order functions (functions that have other functions as parameters), automatic memory management (garbage collection) and an interactive environment. Also, Object-oriented languages are a class of languages more recently used for AI programming. Important features of object-oriented languages include: concepts of objects and messages, objects bundle data and methods for manipulating the data, sender specifies what is to be done receiver decides how to do it, inheritance (object hierarchy where objects inherit the attributes of the more general class of objects). Examples of object-oriented languages are Smalltalk, Objective C, C++.
Artificial Intelligence is a new electronic machine that stores large amount of information and process it at very high speed. The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype It passes if the human cannot
tell if there is a computer or human at the other end. The ability to solve problems. It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence.
Importance of AI
You can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. To beat a world champion by brute force and known reliable heuristics requires being able to look at 200 million positions per second.
In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the other hand, while it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient.
Understanding Natural Language
Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentences is not enough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains.
The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and computers' TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly, and they are not
as good as what humans evidently use.
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