The thumb rule of accessibility is to use HTML5 native tags. However, in today's rich UI experience we know that there are many modules developers are developing for which they are no HTML5 tags. The challenge is how to make these modules identify by assistive technologies? ARIA- comes here to make these accessible. Not just helping in identifying, ARIA- also support adding states and properties of the custom module of tag developers are developing.
ARIA works by changing and augmenting the standard DOM accessibility tree. It doesn't add any keyboard focus or event-listeners to the element.
This can be done by using - role, properties, or state. ARIA-role, ARIA-properties, ARIA-state