A beginner's guide to Git (3 Part Series)
This was originally posted on: https://herewecode.io/blog/a-beginners-guide-to-git-what-is-a-changelog-and-how-to-generate-it/
You are a developer, and you use Git for one of your projects? You want to share with your users the changes you did, but you don’t know how then this article is made for you.
In the last part of this series, I was sharing with you how to write a good commit message.
I gave you an overview of the benefits of writing a good commit, and I shared with you the possibility to generate a changelog.
In this article, you will discover what a changelog is and two ways to generate it, a simple one and a sophisticated one.
A changelog is a file-sharing a chronologically ordered list of the changes you made on your project. It’s often organized with this structure: the version with the date followed by a list of added, improved and removed features.
Globally, it exists two ways to write a changelog:
- the usual way: create a text file and start to enumerate all your changes with a specific date
- the developer choice (alias the lazy option): auto-generate your changelog from your commit messages. I have good news for you; this is what you’re going to learn in this article!
“A changelog is a log or record of all notable changes made to a project. The project is often a website or software project, and the changelog usually includes records of changes such as bug fixes, new features, etc.” – Wikipedia
I think, even now, you are asking yourself why it is essential and why you should take the time to create it.
A changelog is a kind of summary of all your changes. It can be easily understandable by your users using your project or the developers working on it.
In a world where everything is evolving fast, a user needs to know the website/software he is using is changing. You will probably be surprised, but people love to read blog posts or an update page on your website.
For a developer, for example, if the project is big, it can be interesting to know how the software he's working on evolves.
Another example, if you are working in open-source, you can find a "CHANGELOG.md" file in the GitHub repository. This file aims to inform contributors of the latest updates on the project.
CHANGELOG.md of Angular.js GitHub repository
Changelogs are everywhere! Okay, it's often with a different style and location, but it's literally on every project.
I created a short list with a few places where you can find a changelog.
- A blog post. A changelog can be delivered under an article sharing the last features point by point.
- A "CHANGELOG.md" file in a GitHub repository.
- A Changelog section on your favourite website/software. One example with the task management tool TickTick.
- In "What's new" on the Android and the IOS store.
In this part, we're going to generate our first changelog together.
By doing this task, you will understand why it can be useful to commit by following some rules.
An excellent and explicit commit doesn't need to be modified and can be directly added to the changelog.
If you are interested in generating a necessary file without any personalisation or beautification, I recommend the first way; otherwise, the second one is better.
Note: Some websites such as Keep A Changelog are explaining that you shouldn't make a changelog only by copying and pasting your git commits (refer to the simple way). Indeed, I recommend trying to avoid this way if you are doing a professional product. However, nowadays, there exist some advanced generators that allow you to change your git logs into changelogs (refer to the sophisticated way).
By using this first way, you don't need any prerequisites. All you need is to type a few commands inside your Git repository.
As a simple reminder, when you type "git log", a list of all your commits is displayed.
$ git log // Output commit f6986f8e52c1f889c8649ec75c5abac003102999 (HEAD -> master, origin/master, origin/HEAD) Author: Sam Katakouzinos <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Tue Mar 10 11:41:18 2020 +1100 docs(developers): commit message format typo Any line of the commit message cannot be longer *than* 100 characters! Closes #17006 commit ff963de73ab8913bce27a1e75ac01f53e8ece1d9 Author: Chives <email@example.com> Date: Thu Feb 6 19:05:57 2020 -0500 docs($aria): get the docs working for the service Closes #16945 commit 2b28c540ad7ebf4a9c3a6f108a9cb5b673d3712d Author: comet <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Mon Jan 27 19:49:55 2020 -0600 docs(*): fix spelling errors Closes #16942
This command can receive a few parameters. We are going to use them to change the output and get an improved one to generate our changelog.
By typing the following command, you will have an output with one commit per line.
$ git log --oneline --decorate // Output f6986f8e5 (HEAD -> master, origin/master, origin/HEAD) docs(developers): commit message format typo ff963de73 docs($aria): get the docs working for the service 2b28c540a docs(*): fix spelling errors 68701efb9 chore(*): fix serving of URI-encoded files on code.angularjs.org c8a6e8450 chore(package): fix scripts for latest Node 10.x on Windows 0cd592f49 docs(angular.errorHandlingConfig): fix typo (wether --> whether) a4daf1f76 docs(angular.copy): fix `getter`/`setter` formatting be6a6d80e chore(*): update copyright year to 2020 36f17c926 docs: add mention to changelog ff5f782b2 docs: add mention to changelog 27460db1d docs: release notes for 1.7.9 add78e620 fix(angular.merge): do not merge __proto__ property
It’s better but, let’s see what we can do with the following one.
$ git log --pretty=”%s” // Output docs(developers): commit message format typo docs($aria): get the docs working for the service docs(*): fix spelling errors chore(*): fix serving of URI-encoded files on code.angularjs.org chore(package): fix scripts for latest Node 10.x on Windows docs(angular.errorHandlingConfig): fix typo (wether --> whether) docs(angular.copy): fix `getter`/`setter` formatting chore(*): update copyright year to 2020 docs: add mention to changelog docs: add mention to changelog docs: release notes for 1.7.9 fix(angular.merge): do not merge __proto__ property
With this one, you can print the list of commits with the style you want.
The “%s” corresponds to the commit title itself. You can modify the string to style your commit as you want.
In our case, we want to create a list.
$ git log --pretty="- %s" // Output - docs(developers): commit message format typo - docs($aria): get the docs working for the service - docs(*): fix spelling errors - chore(*): fix serving of URI-encoded files on code.angularjs.org - chore(package): fix scripts for latest Node 10.x on Windows - docs(angular.errorHandlingConfig): fix typo (wether --> whether) - docs(angular.copy): fix `getter`/`setter` formatting - chore(*): update copyright year to 2020 - docs: add mention to changelog - docs: add mention to changelog - docs: release notes for 1.7.9 - fix(angular.merge): do not merge __proto__ property
You did it! You created a simple changelog.
Note: If you want to go further, and save your changelog faster. Instead of copying and pasting the result into a file, redirect it to your terminal by typing “git log --pretty="- %s" > CHANGELOG.md”
We are now going to explore a sophisticated way to generate a changelog. The idea behind the process stays the same, but this time we’re going to use other tools to help us.
Do you remember when in the last part of this series I wrote about the Git guidelines?
Note: A Git guidelines is a set of rules to write your commit better. It helps you to put a structure to your commit.
When you are using a guideline for your project, you can use tools to generate a changelog. Most of the time, these tools are better because they allow you to create a markdown formatted changelog.
In this example, we’re going to use a simple generator which works with most of the guidelines. Its name is “generate-changelog”, it’s available on NPM (the Node Package Manager).
This tool is going to create a stylised changelog, but it’s not the one with the most features. I decided to use it because it’s an excellent example for a beginner. If you want to go further, please refer to the list of changelog tools below:
Here are a few tools to do it:
Note: Before installing the tool, you need to have NPM installed on your computer. If it’s not the case, I invite you to follow the official website (it will help you to install Node and NPM).
To install the package on your computer, type the following command in your terminal.
$ npm install generate-changelog -g
Once you do it, it’s installed!
How to use it
To make this package work, you need to follow a guideline using this pattern “type(category): description [flags]”. In this example, I will use the Angular.js GitHub repository because they use it.
Now you can type the generate command in your terminal inside your GitHub repository.
$ changelog generate
A “CHANGELOG.md” file will be automatically created and filled with your logs in a markdown format.
I hope you liked this guide and understood how to create a changelog for your project. I think it’s a good way to demonstrate why you should write good commit messages.
Feel free to try other changelog generators and send me the result!
If you have any questions or feedback, please let me know.
You can find other articles like this on my website: herewecode.io.
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