During my time as a GitHub code review bot I've seen many Django devs importing naked
Django best practice tells us importing
settings.py is bad and we should instead use
from django.conf import settings, but why?
A simple answer is naked
settings.py will not have the Django default values and can trigger a race condition, but there is more to it than that.
Overriding settings in tests is simplified too when using
django.conf.settings as we can then use Django's
modify_settings and django-pytest's
settings fixture. This helps avoid unmaintainable flaky tests as one test's changes will not affect another because changes are reset after the test finishes.
To understand how that works we need to look deeper at what
django.conf.settings is exactly.
django.conf.settings is an instance of
LazySettings. This object is a wrapper around a "holder" of the actual settings. During the normal running of your Django app, that holder ingests the values in the file defined by the environment variable
DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE, which you will recognize from
manage.py, or if you ever tried importing Django from the python shell without first setting that variable and getting the classic
django.core.exceptions.ImproperlyConfigured: Requested setting INSTALLED_APPS, but settings are not configured. You must either define the environment variable DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE or call settings.configure() before accessing settings.
As the name "lazy" implies, the values from
DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE are not evaluated until they are interacted with. This is how we can import settings throughout our codebase with confidence that we will not get an error that the app is not ready yet.
So we can see,
django.conf.settings is not the same thing as the
django.conf.settings is a normally a proxy around your
settings.py file, but not always.
During tests it's convenient to use very different values to those in your
settings.py, or maybe the project does not have a
settings.py (such as a third-party library).
So there are a few great reasons to use
from django.conf import settings instead of importing the
- You get Django's default values set
- It simplifies safely overriding settings during tests
- It avoid triggering app is not ready exceptions
Beware though that lowercase values in your
settings.py are not exposed to
django.conf.settings, but you can store those values in some other files so not a huge loss.
Or try out Django refactor challenges.