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Henri de la Hoz
Henri de la Hoz

Posted on

My Angular (2022) Basic Notes

Basic Notes

Like in most frontend frameworks and libraries, Angular has been designed to offer a tool to create web components that allows us to develop a modularized application.

Creating Components

To create a component manually, we must first create a folder with the name of the component. Then we create three files, one for template, one for styles and one for typescript. Finally we have to modify the file app.module.ts and import the component and add declarations attribute.

Or we can we the Angular CLI command

ng g c my-awesome-component
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Component Lifecycle

  • constructor
    • it runs before render and it runs once. Here Angular creates the instance of the component.
    • We should not run async actions inside this method.
  • ngOnChange
    • it runs before render. It updates changes in the inputs. It runs as many times as the father changes the inputs.
  • ngOnInit
    • It runs before render. this method is executed once, it is triggered when the component is rendered, here we can add APIs calls. Or consuming a service.
  • ngAfterViewInit
    • It runs after render. Basically it used to handle (set inputs, fire events, etc.) the component's children.
    • This method is especially useful when working with directives.
  • ngOnDestroy
    • This method can be used to kill listeners and avoid memory leaks.

How data flows from one component to another

@Input() item: string;
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@Input is the way Angular makes data flows from parents components to its children components.

@Output() newItemEvent = new EventEmitter<string>();
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@Output is the way Angular makes data flows from children components to their parents. Also Output fires events from the children components that can be handle by the parent.

Linting

We can use the CLI command to fire linting

ng lint
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Modules

Modules can be created by the Angular CLI command

ng g m my-awesome-module
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a module can contain its own set of routes, this can be done by adding the following flag when the module is created

ng g m my-awesome-module --routing
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Directives

Directives are use to manipulate an element from the DOM, it can be use to change the native behavior of an element.

It can be created using CLI

ng g d my-awesome-directive
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Here is an example of a directive

import { Directive, ElementRef, HostListener } from "@angular/core";

@Directive({
  selector: "[appHighlight]",
})
export class HighlightDirective {
  @HostListener("mouseenter") onMouseEnter() {
    // do something
  }

  constructor(element: ElementRef) {
    element.nativeElement.style.backgroundColor = "red";
  }
}
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In the code we can see that the directive allow us to manipulate the DOM of the element containing the directive. Also we can attach the directive to events in the DOM

similarly, custom pipes can be created using the CLI

ng g p my-awesome-pipe
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Services

Angular services are used as data providers (get data, set data, subscribe to the data, etc.) to modules and components. Services can be created using the CLI command

ng g s my-awesome-service
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Dependency Injection

Angular also provides an easy way to inject dependencies and reduce the complexity of the components and modules. One way DI can be implemented is by adding the dependency as a class attribute via the constructor.

constructor(private fb: FormBuilder) {}
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As we can see, the dependency is a FormBuilder instance. So the DI engine from Angular will instantiate the attribute and provide it to the component.
In Angular, the instantiation of the dependency is done using the singleton pattern. In other words, the instance is shared between the components and modules who need the dependency.

Lazy Loading

To implement LL in Angular the app needs to be modularized. One way this can be done is by implementing main pages (functionalities) as a module, when this is done, all the required functions, libraries, components, directives, pipes etc. are encapsulated.

Once the app is modularized then the file app-routing.module.ts will look like this sample

{
    path: 'home',
    loadChildren: () =>
        import('./home/home.module')
            .then((m) => m.HomeModule),
}
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Guards

Guards can be used as middleware, one of the benefits of guards is to protect certain routes. So user can only have access to certain routes if guard allows the request to proceed.

Guards can be created using the command

ng g g my-awesome-guard
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import { Injectable } from "@angular/core";
import {
  CanActivate,
  ActivatedRouteSnapshot,
  RouterStateSnapshot,
  UrlTree,
} from "@angular/router";
import { Observable } from "rxjs";

@Injectable({
  providedIn: "root",
})
export class AdminGuard implements CanActivate {
  canActivate(
    next: ActivatedRouteSnapshot,
    state: RouterStateSnapshot
  ):
    | Observable<boolean | UrlTree>
    | Promise<boolean | UrlTree>
    | boolean
    | UrlTree {
    return true;
  }
}
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Partial

Partial can be used as a wrapper of any type. Partial set all the attributes from a type as optional. This is very useful when we want to perform patch request in order to update a record in the database.

  updateProduct(id: string, set: Partial<Product>) {
    return this.http.put(`${environment.url_api}/${id}`, set);
  }
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Ivy

This is the main renderer built by Angular. This technology helps to build small size apps, faster compilation, easier and faster debugging.

Ivy provides rules to automatically delete portions of Angular that are not used by the app. We do not have to transport the whole size framework for all apps, we ship the code we need.

Differential Loading

This feature of Angular is a mechanism to reduce the number of files downloaded by the client.

When Angular detects the kind of browser the client is using (version, features of the browser, etc.) select which polyfill should be downloaded.

Remember a polyfill is like a patch used to enhance the browser and allow modern web apps to run in old browsers.

Modern browsers require less polyfills and vice versa.

Smart and Dumb Components Strategy

Basically what we want here is to separate components that contain logic and data process (smart) in a folder usually known as container and in another folder named components those presentation components on charge of displaying data.

Short Imports

This strategy allows us to reduce long paths and also it gives us flexibility when we have to refactor components for any reason.

To take advantage of short imports we have to modify he file tsconfig.app.json

  "compilerOptions": {
// other settings
    "paths":{
      "@core/*":["src/app/core/*"],
      "@utils/*":["src/app/utils/*"],
      "@shared/*":["src/app/shared/*"],
      "@material/*":["src/app/material/*"],
    }
  },
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Each attribute of the object path represent a short import, the key will be used directly in the code and the value will be the actual path we are pointing to.

import { SharedModule } from "@shared/shared.module";
import { MaterialModule } from "@material/material.module";
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