The thing that makes Jest special is that it provides an integrated framework that does not require any experience in the configuration. The tool is ready to use and if you are using npm you can set it up instantly by running the following command.
npm install --save-dev jest
- The biggest benefit of using Jest is the out of the box experience of minimal configuration and setup since it comes with a mocking support an assertion library. Just like any new testing libraries, the test cases are written using the behavior-driven development approach. You can put your test cases in a folder named _tests_ and start running them.
- Jest offers a robust developer tooling with less error-prone code.
- The framework can also perform visual regression tests by capturing screenshots. When an application is developed using React JS, this feature comes quite handy for preventing UI bugs caused accidentally. It works by recording a screenshot of the rendered component and later comparing it with components rendered in the future. The screenshots can be updated easily if any new feature is added.
- Compared to frameworks like Jasmine it does not support that much libraries or tooling which can sometimes come really handy for debugging your test cases in IDEs that does not support Jest.
- People who are not comfortable around Jest have stated the learning curve is pretty hard.
- Snapshot testing with Jest is not so feasible for larger snapshots files.
Well, whether you want to use Jest or Jasmine depends entirely on your requirement. If your project requires debugging the test cases in an IDE that does not support Jest, Jasmine is obviously the best choice. Still, I would suggest giving Jest a shot is totally worth it because of the investments Facebook is currently making and the positive experience that the React developers community is getting.
The installation is very simple. You only require a workstation and install Mocha using the following commands.
For global installation run the below command:
npm i –global mocha.
If you want to install mocha as a dependency for development, run npm i –save-dev mocha.
Developers as well as testers like Mocha for many reasons.
- The application is open source and allows flexibility.
- It can easily support generators.
- Since it is old, lots of tutorial and documents are available online.
- Sequential execution of test cases with flexible reporting.
- Mocha helps you to easily map exceptions with the relevant test cases.
- Mocha can do better with developer tooling.
- With the emergence of Jest, Mocha has significantly reducing the popularity among the tester community.
- Mocha could do better in terms of overall performance, and on-board features.
Well, the time required for setup and configuration makes Mocha a less popular framework. Organizations who have switched to Jest have found no better alternative. Jest makes testing a lot faster with very little requirement for configuration. Although the ecosystem of Mocha is quite vast, the complexity that comes with it is not sometimes worth.
Installation of Jasmine is very simple. All you need is a workstation with internet connectivity. Run the below command in cmd/ terminal for installing Jasmine.
npm install -g jasmine
However, the configuration is a bit complicated than Jest. You have to set up and configure the test.js file before running the test cases.
- The community of Jasmine is quite large and you will get all kinds of support which come in the form of libraries, blog posts or video tutorials.
- With a bigger community, the learning curve is very smooth for Jasmine. You get pretty impressive documentation too.
- Offers an elegant programming style & patterns.
- Jasmine is that a lot of configuration is needed. The user has to choose a mocking framework or an assertion library explicitly before using it. If your project requires this flexibility, it can be useful. If not, the configuration procedure can be a bit frustrating.
- Jasmine supports snapshot testing by using the jasmine-snapshot library. However, integrating it can be a bit difficult.
- Popularity of Jest has led to diminishing popularity of Jasmine.
If your project is large and requires integrating it with external libraries then obviously Jasmine is the best choice because of its age and large user base. If your project is small and especially if you are using React JS, we would suggest using Jest because of its rising popularity among other users.
Now, that we are done with the top 3 testing frameworks as per stateofjs 2018. I will be highlighting some frameworks which although are not a part of the survey but are considered very useful by the testing community in my opinion.
For automated web application testing, especially apps which are developed using Node.js, Nightwatch is a powerful automated framework that uses Selenium WebDriver API and allows the user to perform end to end testing. The primary objective of Nightwatch is to simplify the process of writing automated test cases and helping to set up continuous integration in your development cycle.
Since Nightwatch is meant for testing Node.js applications, your workstation should have the latest stable version of Node.js installed. Also, install npm since it is needed for installing the framework.
For running the framework locally, you will also need a standalone Selenium server along with the WebDriver API. This will help you to test applications locally using Firefox or Chrome.
Once your workstation is ready, run the following command in cmd.
$npm install Nightwatch
- First of all, the setup is quite easy.
- You will only need to import the Selenium library.
- The community is quite large and there is a lot of resources available in the form of blogs and tutorials if you need any help regarding setup or writing the test cases.
- The language is very simple. You will only need a basic knowledge of object-oriented programming.
- If the tester belongs to a Java team, the backend team members can pick up the knowledge easily and help testers to write automated test cases, thereby increasing the overall productivity of your team.
- The test cases are not that much readable like other frameworks. The syntax is not clear and it is nor possible for the users to write a clear description in case of each and every step. You can do it in the form of comments but if any test cases fail, it won’t get displayed in the logs.
- To find where you went wrong, you can add a clear error message for each step, but it will make maintaining a clean syntax difficult.
For an end to end testing of Node.js based web applications, Nightwatch is obviously the best but if you think about the bigger picture, it has a lot of dependencies. You don’t have that much choice of using external unit testing applications and has lesser support than Protractor or WebDriverIO.
We have got Jest for automated testing of React JS applications. But what about Angular developers. Being one of the oldest and popular frameworks for developing single-page applications, its good to have a framework dedicated to testing Angular JS and Angular applications. Protractor is here to the rescue. It is an end to end automation testing framework dedicated for testing your angular application in a real browser, making automated interaction just like a real user.
First of all, you will need to have npm and Angular installed in your system. We hope you already have that since you are developing an Angular application. You will also need a Selenium server which will enable the application to run cross browser compatible test cases. Once your system is set up, run the following command in cmd
application to run cross browser compatible test cases. Once your system is set up, run the following command in c
That’s it. You are good to go. Start writing the test cases and have fun testing your angular application.
- Since the framework runs over Selenium WebDriver it makes cross-browser testing easier. All the basic functionalities of WebDriver is supported by Protractor.
- Compared to Selenium WebDriver, you will have additional locators like repeater, model, binding and many more.
- You can easily write and manage page objects.
- There is a default waits functionality, the purpose of which is to wait for angular which is absent in WebDriver.
- If your application is developed using a behavior driven approach, this framework is perfect since it supports frameworks like Cucumber, Jasmine, Mocha, etc.
- Automated screenshot capturing and comparing is much easier in Protractor.
- The framework also supports parallel execution of test cases across multiple workstations.
- The biggest disadvantage is that the framework runs perfectly in Chrome. It does not provide much support on other browsers.
- It also does not support Robot classes.
- The community support is small when compared to Selenium, which has been in the market for a longer time.
Once again, Protractor is the best framework for testing Angular applications but since it works only for Chrome, it’s better to use Selenium if your project demands cross-browser testing. Selenium works fine for Angular applications and providing XPath will also define waits and other locators. Selenium also has huge community support and makes cross-browser testing easier because of its support over multiple browsers.
- The IDE is open source, hence can be easily learned by testers who are new in the industry or someone who wants to get introduced to the domain of web testing.
- Being in the industry for a long time, the community of Selenium is quite huge and for any help or query, the community is always there to resolve your problem.
- The framework is open source and supported by a community, you will not get an instant solution to any of your problems.
- For utilizing the complete feature of Selenium, you will require any third-party plugins.
- Scalability – You cannot perform parallel testing with Selenium WebDriver. Which is why Selenium came up with Selenium Grid to help you run multiple tests in parallel. A shortcoming with Selenium Grid is that it would require a heavy infrastructure if you have a large test suite and need multiple tests to run in parallel.
LambdaTest is a cross browser testing tool which offers an on-cloud Selenium Grid consisting of 2000+ real browser running on various operating system & devices for both desktop & mobile. LambdaTest Selenium Grid can help you overcome the limitations that come with Selenium execution.
- LambdaTest Selenium Grid offers compatibility with every test automation framework & language that supports Selenium execution.
- Our technical experts are always ready to help you with any problems that you may face while executing automation testing with Selenium. Just drop a hello to our 24/7 customer chat support.
- With LambdaTest Selenium Grid, you can scale effortlessly without worrying about maintenance or any down-time.
- Run parallel testing with Selenium scripts by going for more concurrent sessions.
- LambdaTest integrateswith numerous CI/CD tools such as Jenkins, CircleCI and more to help you pace your release pipelines.
- Extract test reports using our open Selenium API, without even logging into our platform.
Well, when it comes to automated cross browser testing, there is no better framework than Selenium. The pros of Selenium highly outweigh the cons and the fact that it comes free of cost makes it a preferred tool by many organizations. The issues that testers are currently facing with old documentation and lack of plugins are soon going to be resolved with the launch of Selenium 4.
Puppeteer is another Node.js based automated testing library which provides an API that helps the users to control Chrome by overriding the standard DevTools protocol. Many scenarios which can be done manually in the browser can be automated with the help of Puppeteer
Puppeteer will require your workstation to have the latest version of Chrome along with Chromium. You will also need to have yarn or npm installed in your system. Node.js is again another must have since the framework is meant for testing Node.js based web applications.
Automation scripts written using Puppeteer overrides the DevTools Protocol API. Instead of crafting web sockets payloads, calling an API will automatically
- Launch chrome
- Open a new tab in the browser
- Navigate to the desired site for testing.
- Capture a screenshot and close the browser.
Puppeteer allows the users to mock resources, thereby avoiding reliability, consistency and speed issues. You can manipulate external resources like CSS selectors to make your specific test case execute faster.
Puppeteer’s biggest disadvantage is that it works only with Chrome. If your project demands the application to be cross-browser compatible, you will have to depend on NightWatch or other frameworks to test the application across other browsers.
The fact that it makes headless testing easier is the main reason behind the popularity of Puppeteer. However, as mentioned earlier, it only makes sense to use Puppeteer if you are developing an application that is to be used exclusively in Chrome. If you are developing a cross-browser compatible web application, you can go for TestCafe, Nightwatch or other frameworks that make an end to end testing easier across multiple browsers.
Karma was developed to bring a testing environment to developers. An environment where they have to worry less about configuration. They can only write code and get feedback instantly from the test cases.
Since the application is based on Node.js, you will need to have Node.js installed on your system. After that, you can install Karma globally by running the following command on CMD.
npm install -g karma
- Karma helps you to easily perform automation testing on real devices and browsers. You can run the test cases on tablets, phones or event on a PhantomJS like headless instance.
- You can control the entire workflow directly from your IDE or CMD. You only need to save a file and the framework will run the test cases for you.
- You can run the test cases with Mocha, Jasmin, QUnit or an adapter of your choice.
- Since the application is open source, you will find a lot of help from the community.
- It also supports continuous integration using Jenkins, Semaphore or Travis.
Well, surprisingly there are not any notable disadvantages of using Karma
Currently, Karma is considered to be one of the best JS frameworks. When compared to Jest, Jest has many unfixed bugs and does not support .mjs files on a native environment. Even, a single error has multiple error messages for Jest. However, these issues are not there with Karma.