Best short and also official description:
Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.
Benefits / Comparison:
Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. It outclasses SCM tools like Subversion, CVS, Perforce, and ClearCase with features like cheap local branching, convenient staging areas, and multiple workflows.
Download and install it from https://git-scm.com/
git status // Show the current status git init // Initialize project folder with GIT git add // Add changes to the stage git commit // Commit changes in the stage to the history / log git log // Show the commit history
git help // Help Overview git help -a // GIT Commands git help -g // GIT Guides
git branch // Create a branch git checkout (in future "git switch") // Switch to a branch git merge // Merge a branch into an other one
Playground for GIT Commands: https://git-school.github.io/visualizing-git/
Some good free GIT Clients (GUIs) are:
Optional useful Diff Tool: Beyond Compare
git clone // Download a repository to your PC git fetch // Download the latest content from the server git pull // Download the latest content from the server and merge it with your local content git push // Upload your content to the server