The software testing industry has emerged as a coveted field among students. Owing to its rapid expansion around the globe, the career scope has expanded with hefty investments attracting great talent. This has given rise to tough competition leading to more arduous recruitment processes.
Here are the top 40 software testing interview questions and responses to help you land a job in the testing industry. You can also use this article to enhance your knowledge.
These questions are divided into easy, intermediate, and advanced categories.
If you are a recruiter, this article can guide you to hire the best talent in the market: An Interviewer’s Complete Guide to hire the best QA Engineers
If you barely have any experience in this space and just beginning your journey, you might want to start with this section. It covers the fundamental questions that a budding tester often asks during interviews.
1. What do you understand by software testing?
Software testing is the procedure used to judge software programs’ effectiveness, accuracy, and usability. Therefore, software testing involves running a system or program to look for bugs, mistakes, or other flaws. The aim is to verify whether the code satisfies the client’s unique needs, expectations, and requirements.
2. Explain the different types of software testing.
i. Unit Testing
Unit testing concentrates on the most fundamental building block of software design. The programmer will frequently perform this task using sample input and observing the appropriate outputs. We test either a single unit or a collection of related elements.
ii. Integration Testing
Integration testing is used to validate a set of elements consolidated together. It validates whether the system complies with the predefined functional requirements. Integration tests come in four varieties: top-down, bottom-up, sandwich, big-bang, and i-spy are just a few examples.
iii. Regression Testing
Changes to the program occur each time a new module is added. Regression testing ensures that each element functions effectively after each such update.
iv. Performance Testing
Performance testing checks how well software performs when used in the context of an integrated system. It is used to evaluate the program’s efficiency and speed. It is also known as load testing because it examines the system’s performance under the specified load.
v. Acceptance Testing
Acceptance testing ensures a product meets its goals and will help the end-users achieve the desired results.
3. State the critical challenges of software testing.
Several of the significant difficulties in software testing are listed below:
Being unable to understand the application due to a lack of standard documents.
Testing talent shortage.
Communicating with clients about application requirements requires testers to have good listening and understanding skills.
Deciding when to halt testing and making informed decisions about it.
An aptitude for time-sensitive tasks may not be easy to inculcate.
The capacity to prioritize which tests to run first requires expertise.
An optimal amount of test cases is used to test the complete application.
4. Explain black-box, white-box, and grey-box testing techniques.
i. Black-box testing
Black-box testing verifies software’s functionality without examining the backend mechanisms that support its working. It finds wide application in almost all strata of software testing techniques.
ii. White-box testing
White-box testing considers a program’s internal operations when evaluating its functionality. Both unit testing and integration testing make use of it.
iii. Grey-box testing
When combined, black and white-box testing techniques give rise to the grey-box testing process. It is applied during the software testing process. By employing this strategy, you can evaluate a software program or application while knowing only a part of its underlying workings.
5. What is a test plan, and what does it include?
A well-written test plan document detailing the scope and activities of software testing is necessary for the project’s success. Essentially, a test plan is an ongoing document that the testing manager monitors and controls. It essentially acts as a blueprint outlining the who, what, when, how, and other details of the complete testing procedure.
The information below must be included in a test plan:
Reason for Testing
6. Elucidate test scripts, test scenarios, and test cases in software testing.
i. Test scenario
A test scenario typically consists of several cases covering a software application’s functionality. It gives an overview of the necessary testing.
ii. Test case
A set of procedures known as test cases are carried out as part of the software development process to validate a specific feature or function. A test case comprises test steps, data, preconditions, and postconditions to verify a particular requirement.
iii. Test script
It is a set of instructions that will be followed to confirm that the system being tested functions as expected. The document outlines each action and the anticipated outcomes.
7. What is meant by test coverage?
The quality metric for measuring the amount of testing done is known as test coverage (in percentage). Additionally, it is used to add any missing test cases. Both non-functional and functional testing operations should consider test coverage.
8. Explain verification and validation in software testing.
Verification is a method used in software testing to ensure that products are developed per requirements and using accepted development practices. The following actions are included in the process:
Validation is a technique for ensuring that the developed product is bug-free and functioning as intended. The following activities comprise it:
9. What is static testing? When does it start, and what does it cover?
Static testing is a white-box method that instructs developers to examine their code against a checklist to identify issues. Without finishing the application or program, developers might begin static testing. Because static testing covers more ground in less time than dynamic testing, it is more cost-effective.
10. Can we do system testing at any stage?
No. System testing begins only once all modules have been installed and are functioning correctly. However, it must be done before UAT (User Acceptance Testing).
If you have been in the testing industry for two to three years, these questions might be for you. However, revise the previous section to avoid unpleasant surprises during your interview.
11. What is the connection between priority and severity?
*Severity * indicates the weight and depth of a bug. It describes the application point of view.
*Priority * tells which bug has to be fixed first. It outlines the viewpoint of the user.
12. What is the purpose of end-to-end testing?
End-to-end testing is an approach used to cover every potential application flow from beginning to end. This process identifies software dependencies and confirms that the correct input is transmitted across different software modules and subsystems.
13. Define API.
Application Programming Interface or API allows users to concentrate on the inputs and outputs necessary to operate a software program by abstracting the inner workings and complexity. It serves as a channel of communication for two software components.
Developers frequently use other third-party libraries in addition to writing new code from scratch while creating new software. By providing a straightforward interface, an API enables communication between two software components.
The provision of data needed by an application is another usage of an API. For example, consider a weather application that shows the temperature. You would use the API made available by the meteorological institute rather than developing the technology to measure the temperature.
14. Can you describe the different types of test coverage techniques?
The test coverage process is used to assess if you are testing everything that needs to be tested. Test coverage creates difficulties for areas that aren’t already covered, improving the overall quality of the test suite. We can utilize these approaches to enhance or maximize test coverage.
15. What is data flow testing?
Data flow testing emphasizes building test cases that cover the control flow pathways surrounding variable definitions and their use in the modules. The following qualities are expected to be present in test cases:
Module’s input data
Test-related control flow
Examples of how to utilize and define relevant variables
What the test case should produce as a result
16. Define agile testing, and state its importance.
The software testing method known as “agile testing” assesses software from the customer’s perspective. The development team does not need to finish coding before beginning QA, which is a benefit. Contrarily, testing and coding are mutually exclusive. But it might require constant interaction with customers.
17. State the difference between a test driver and a test stub.
A piece of code known as the test driver is used to invoke a software component that is being verified. It is helpful in testing apps using a bottom-up methodology.
A dummy program called a test stub is integrated with an application to fulfil its functionality. It applies to testing that follows a top-down methodology.
Consider a situation where we need to evaluate the interface between Modules A and B. Only Module A has been created so far. We can test Module A using either the actual or a fake Module B. Module B in this instance is the test stub.
Now, data from Module A cannot be sent or received directly to Module B. In such a case, test drivers, which are external features, are required to transfer data from one module to another.
18. How will you test a product if the requirements are not defined?
It is possible to develop a test plan based on assumptions about a product if the necessary specifications are not readily available. In the test plan, however, you must thoroughly record all beliefs.
19. Why is it not possible to test a program thoroughly?
The two main obstacles that prevent software from being tested thoroughly are listed below.
There are many possible interpretations of software requirements because they are subjective.
The number of inputs, outputs, and path combinations a software program needs can be excessive.
20. What will you do in case of a bug during testing?
The following steps can be taken if a bug occurs.
We can do additional testing to confirm that the problem is adequately described.
To make sure the issue doesn’t persist with other inputs, we can conduct a few more tests.
We can add information and submit the bug if we are confident of its complete scope.
21. Difference between bug, defect, and error.
The term “error” refers to a coding mistake. A built code fails functionally if it doesn’t meet the requirements. The flaw that the development team acknowledges is referred to as a bug. A manual tester’s discovery of an error turns it into a defect.
22. What does a fault mean?
The term “fault” refers to a situation that prevents software from carrying out the desired function.
23. What do you understand about STLC?
The Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) suggests planning and organizing how tests are carried out. To increase the product’s quality, the STLC model includes several operations.
The STLC model outlines the following steps:
Setting up the test case development
Test cycle closure
24. What are functional and non-functional test cases?
i. Functional testing
It examines how the tested software behaves. Application testing is guided by a document known as a software specification, which is based on the client’s requirements.
ii. Non-Functional testing
When a software application performs as expected by the user, efficiently and effectively under any circumstance, it is said to be reliable. It is essential to test these factors to determine quality. Testing like this is referred to as non-functional testing.
25. State the different types of functional testing methods.
Validation methods covered by functional testing include:
26. Distinguish between retesting and regression testing.
Regression testing and retesting could differ in the following ways:
To ensure that the defects no longer exist, we retest. However, regression testing ensures that the bug patch does not affect other application components.
Regression test cases validate the functionality of one or more modules.
Regression testing makes sure that successful test cases are rerun. Contrarily, retesting entails running test cases that have failed.
Regression is less critical than retesting. However, occasionally both processes are carried out concurrently.
You are probably an expert if you have been in the industry for more than three to four years. This list will help you prepare for more challenging software testing interview questions.
27. What is exploratory testing?
Exploratory testing involves learning about the test design and execution simultaneously. In other words, it’s a hands-on method where testers are more involved in the performance of tests than in their planning.
28. Distinguish between bug leakage and bug release.
i. Bug leakage: Bug leaking is when the testing team fails to find the bug during software testing, which the end-user or customer discovers.
ii. Bug release: A bug release occurs when a particular software version is issued with several known bugs. The severity/priority of these bugs is often low. It is carried out when a software corporation can live with problems in the released product but not with the time or expense needed to address them in that specific version.
29. State the difference between performance testing and monkey testing.
Performance testing evaluates a system’s responsiveness, expandability, and stability. It is defined as meeting the performance goals for a project or a product by reaching reaction time, throughput, and resource utilization levels.
“Monkey testing” involves having a user test an application by giving it random inputs and observing how the application responds.
30. What to consider while writing a bug report?
The following essential components should be included in a perfect bug report:
A special ID.
Should provide a brief account of the fault.
How to replicate: They contain thorough test procedures to reproduce the problem. Additionally, they offer the test results and the time the problem happened.
Any system settings that might aid in reproducing the problem to the environment.
The application’s module or area where the mistake was made.
QA in charge: if you need to follow up on this matter, contact them.
31. Based on which factors would you consider choosing automated testing over manual testing?
According to the following criteria, automation testing should be preferred to manual testing:
Periodic execution of tests is necessary.
Repetitive steps are part of tests.
Tests run in a typical runtime setting.
Automation is supposed to speed up the process.
Reusability is rising thanks to automation.
For each execution, there are automation reports available.
A tiny bug fix is included in more minor releases like service packs. Executing the regression test in these circumstances is sufficient for validation.
32. What is a Silk Test? Why should you use it?
A professional tool is created to test an application’s functioning and for regression. It tests Windows-based, Java, web, and classic client/server applications. To offer direct access to the database and field validation, Silk Test assists in creating and managing the test plan.
33. Distinguish between quality assurance, quality control, and software testing.
The term “quality assurance” (QA) refers to a planned and organized method of evaluating the effectiveness of the steps taken to create a high-quality product. Testing analysis monitors test reports and adjusts the procedure to match expectations.
Quality Control (QC) is essential to the product’s quality. QC proposes enhancements in addition to identifying flaws. So, QC puts into practice a procedure that QA has established. The testing team is accountable for quality control.
Software testing is the practice of ensuring that a product generated by developers satisfies user requirements. Finding bugs and making sure they are fixed are the goals of testing.
Read more here: If you are interested in appearing for QA roles, this blog will help you prepare for the interviews: Interview tips when appearing for QA roles
34. How can automated testing be performed in your environment?
Automated testing is the process of running tests without human intervention. It dramatically decreases human intervention with tools to accelerate testing procedures. We employ various test automation tools, including WinRunner, Selenium, and QTP. These tools can produce test reports and scripts for automated application verification.
35. What is defect age?
Defect age measures how long it took for a developer to remedy a flaw after a tester discovered it.
Consider the following factors when calculating the age of a defect:
A defect’s birth date is the day it was assigned to and approved by the development team.
The omitted issues are not within the purview.
Hours or days can be used to measure age.
The fault was validated and closed on the end date, not only the day the development team rectified it.
36. What is defect removal efficiency in software testing?
One of the testing measures is defect removal effectiveness (DRE). It is the ratio between the number of issues found and resolved flaws used to measure it. This demonstrates the significance of the development team in resolving issues before the release.
For illustration, suppose 62 of 75 problems identified by the development team during the test cycle had been resolved by the time of measurement. DRE would be 62/75, or 82.6%.
37. What is the defect detection percentage in software testing?
Testing metrics include defect detection percentage (DDP). A testing procedure’s efficacy can be determined by calculating the ratio of flaws found before release and the number of errors noted after a customer uses the software.
For example, suppose the QA found 70 flaws throughout the testing cycle, and the client reported 20 additional ones after the release. DDP therefore would be: 70/(70 + 20) = 72.1%
38. What is meant by latent defect?
Unable to be found by a user, a latent defect is a concealed flaw in software or an application. Since the requirements will never be completed, the application will not fail.
39. What are the benefits of test reports?
Test results can determine a project’s quality and current status. Stakeholders and clients can then take the appropriate steps. Analyzing various project phases would be easier with thorough test report documentation.
40. What is meant by system testing?
A whole integrated system tested using the black-box technique is known as system testing. It ensures the plan complies with the requirements.
As you’ve seen, interview questions can touch on various topics, including practical techniques, a grasp of responsibilities, team relationships, and software testing theory. This list of the top 40 software testing interview questions can be helpful to you if you are appearing in an interview in this sector. We hope the following responses may help you get a job and develop your career as a software tester.