To hedge their bets they pursued two routes: collaborating with Sun Microsystems to embed Java and hiring Brendan Eich to embed Scheme. After hiring Eich, Netscape decided that the best option was to devise a new language with syntax similar to Java to capitalize on its popularity.
The Document Object Model is an object representation of an html document that serves as a programming interface to select and manipulate the page. The DOM can be used to change document structure, content, and styling. It creates and propagates event objects with information about event type and target.
A commonly held sentiment among some developers was that this was an unfortunate inconvenience of web development, and whenever possible code that could be written on the back end should be written on the back end.
That same year, AngularJS was created by Miško Hevery as the underlying framework behind an online JSON storage service.
MongoDB was also created around the same time as an internal component of 10gen's planned PaaS product. As the database started to gain traction it eventually became the sole focus of the company and. In 2013, they rebranded to Mongo Inc. MongoDB also leveraged JSON by providing a document schema instead of the dominant relational model.
The final piece came in 2010 when TJ Holowaychuk created a Sinatra inspired server framework for Node called Express.js that handled routing and middleware.
The MEAN stack proved impractical for many developers due to the prohibitively large bundle size of Angular, the sprawling dependencies of Node, and the lack of ACID transactions in MongoDB.
The Jamstack is a radical departure that attempts to serve static files from globally distributed CDN's, removing the server and the database from the stack entirely.
GraphQL API's are used as a glue layer for message passing between the CDN, 3rd party plugins, and users of your app. Lastly, markup can be used for creating websites, documents, notes, books, presentations, email messages, and technical documentation.